Ubuzima

Imirimo 4 Ihemba Agatubutse Ugitangira Kuyikora

Ese waba ubizi ko hari abantu bakirangiza kaminuza bajya ku isoko ry’umurimo bagatangira akazi kabo gashya mu mirimo n’imyuga bahembwamo imishahara benshi mu bandi bakozi badashobora gutekereza kuzapfa bahembwe mu kazi bakora?

Davis Nguyen, afasha intiti zigisoza kaminuza (fresh graduates) mu gutangira gukora mu nganda z’imirimo bigiye biciye mu bujyanama mu miyoborere bizwi nka management consulting. Ni uruganda rw’umurimo mu mateka ruzwiho kuba ruhemba neza: ndetse yemwe na mbere y’iyaduka ry’icyorezo cya Covid-19, hari ibigo by’ubucuruzi bikomeye byahembaga intiti zigisoza kaminuza imishahara itubutse.

Ariko, ku isoko rya none, abakiliya ba Nguyen bahagaze neza cyane. “[Abakiliya banjye] Baragaruka bakavuga bati ‘Mfite ibiraka ‘offers’ bibiri binini,” ni ko Nguyen watangije Consulting Offer, ikigo cy’ubujyanama gikorera muri leta ya Georgia muri Amerika, abivuga. “Ikiraka kimwe ni amadolari ibihumbi ijana na makumyabiri ($120.000=120.000.000FRW) mu gihe ikindi ari amadolari ibihumbi ijana na mirongo ine ($140.000=140.000.000FRW).

Imiterere y’akazi k’ubu isobanura ko abantu bakiminuza bashobora kubona amafaranga menshi kurusha uko byahoze mu myaka mike ishize.

Ese, mu gihe tugitangira umwaka mushya, urashaka kongera umushahara n’ingano y’ayo wishyurwa ukajya uhembwa agatubutse? Muri iyi nkuru twakoze twifashishije BBC, turakugezaho inganda z’akazi ushobora kujyamo ugakoramo bene ako kazi.
Turisegura kuko nyinshi muri izi nganda zishingiye ku mirimo itamaze igihe ku isoko ry’umurimo ku buryo hari amuga ayibamo tutabashije kubonera Ikinyarwanda ‘nyacyo’ twifashisha.

1. Ubujyanama mu miyoborere n’imikorere (management consulting)

Uru ni rumwe mu nganda z’imirimo zifite umubare wiyongera w’abakiminuza bahita bajyamo bakiva mu ishuri bakajya mu mirimo ihemba agatubutse- bajya guhembwa imishahara iri mu yo abantu benshi batazapfa guhembwa mu buzima bwabo.

Abajyanama benshi mu mikorere n’imicungire bazwi ino aha nka ba ‘consultants’ bafasha ibigo by’uburuzi gukemura ibibazo, kuzamura urwego rw’imikorere y’ubushabitsi (enhancing business performance), kuzanira agaciro ka kompanyi (generating value) no kongerera ikompanyi n’ibyo ikora agaciro ku isoko (adding value).

Imirimo ikorwa na bene aba bajyanama ‘consultants’ ishobora gutandukana, harimo iyamamazabikorwa ry’ubucuruzi bwo kuri murandasi (e-commerce marketing), ubucuruzi, ukugenzura no kuyobora uko ibikorwa bigera ku baguzi (supply chain management) no gukora imishinga n’ingamba z’ubushabitsi (business strategy).

Aba akazi ka buri munsi bakora harimo gukora isesenguramibare ikomeye (analysis of firm statistics), kuganira n’abakozi b’umukiliya (interviews with client personnel), guhanga no kwerekana ibitekerezo by’imishinga y’ubucuruzi (creating and presenting business proposals) no kuyobora amatsinda y’abakozi ashyira iyo mishinga mu bikorwa.

2. Ubuhanga bwo gukora no gukoresha mudasobwa na porogaramu zazo (computer engineering)

Iyi minsi, ibikoresho bya mudasobwa byashyizwe mu bicuruzwa byinshi by’ikoranabuhanga ndetse isi yahurijwe hamwe igirwa umudugudu binyuze muri sisitemu za mudasobwa.

Nk’uko urubuga rwitwa Try Engineering rubivuga, akazi k’umuhanga wo gukora no gukoresha mudasobwa (computer engineer) gashingira ku bikoresho- kita cyane kuri sisitemu z’urujyano na za porogaramu z’ikoranabuhanga.

Abenjeniyeri ba mudasobwa ni ngombwa ngo basobanukirwe imikorere y’urukurikirane rw’imikorere y’ubwonko bwa za mudasobwa (logical structure), imisusire n’imibumbire ya za sisitemu nto za mudasobwa (micro-system design), ubuhanzi bw’imyubakire (architecture) bwa mudasobwa, guhuza, gushyira ku murongo (alignment) no guteranya za mudasobwa kandi bagahora bazirikana banumva ibikenewe ngo porogaramu za mudasobwa zigende kandi zikore neza.

Ibi biha abenjeniyeri ba mudasobwa ububasha bwo gukora muri buri bwoko bw’inganda z’imirimo no gukomeza no guhuza ibicuruzwa na sisitemu mu nzira nshya umunsi ku munsi.

Mu bigo binini by’ikoranabuhanga, abenjeniyeri ba porogaramu z’ibanze (entry level software engineers) batangirira ku mishahara itubutse cyane.

3. Isesenguramakuru mibare (data analysis)

Umusesenguzi w’amakurumibare (data analyst) kenshi aba azi kandi afite ubuhanga mu gusesengura tekiniki z’imikorere y’ubushakashatsi bushingiye ku mibare (statistical research methods), gusesengura no kwiga neza ibibuvamo kugira ngo hafatwe imyanzuro ijyanjye n’ubwenge kandi izabyara umusaruro (statistical data processing and analysis of results to obtain reasonable conclusions).

Mu bigo by’ubucuruzi binini kurusha amabanki, ibihembo byishyurwa abasesenguraamakurumibare y’umwaka wa mbere byariyongereye kugeza hafi kuri 30%- aho umushahara w’ibanze ugera ku madolari ibihumbi ijana na cumi ($110.000) arasaga 110.000.000FRW.

4. Imirimo y’abanyamategeko

Umunyamategeko (lawyer) ni umuntu wize kandi akigishwa nk’inzobere mu mategeko. Uyu ni inzobere mu mategeko n’imibare y’iby’amategeko, bimuha ububasha n’ubushobozi bwo guhagararira, gufasha, gutanga inama, no gukora nk’uhagarariye mu mategeko ikigo cyangwa umuryango runaka. Aha akora ibi abihuza n’imirongo y’amategeko hagendewe ku burenganzira n’inyungu za rubanda bakenera serivisi ze.

Mu bigo bikomeye by’ubucuruzi by’i Londres mu Bwongereza, bamwe mu banyamategeko bakiminuza batangira akazi kabo ku mushahara w’amapawundi 107,500= $141,115 asaga 141.115.000FRW.

Ingaruka z’igihe kirekire ?

Inshuro nyinshi aba bakozi bakiri bato bajya mu makompanyi akoramo bagenzi bagenzi babo batangiriye ku mishahara yo hasi byasabye ko bakorana umwete uhambaye mu gihe cy’imyaka itari mike ngo bagere ku mishahara myiza.

Ibigo by’ubucuruzi nk’ibi byagiye bivuga ko iyi ntambwe ari igisubizo ku bikenewe n’isoko ry’umurimo: intambara mu gutanga akazi ivuga guhatanira gutwara ab’impano n’ubushobozi buhambaye ikomeje gukara, aho usanga iyo abakoresha bakeneye guha akazi abakozi beza biteguye gukora akazi amasaha menshi, bagomba kubishyura imishahara iri hejuru ngo babashe kwishyura ikiguzi cy’igihe kirekire bamara bakora.

Gusa na none, usibye kugereranya ikigero cy’isoko, ese, guha intiti zikiminuza imishahara itubutse hari inyungu, nko kongera umurava n’umwete (motivation) zo gukora amasaha menshi y’ikirenga y’akazi cyangwa kongera umutekano n’umutuzo umuntu yumva afite mu kazi? Cyangwa bishobora kuzana ingarukwa zititezwe, ku rubyiruko rukorera imishahara iri hejuru n’imbaraga mu mirimo y’imbaraga nyinshi?

Imishahara y’intiti zikiminuza yagiye izamuka uko imyaka yahise: Nk’uko imibare yo mu 2021 itangazwa n’amashyirahamwe atari aya leta muri Amerika nk’Ishyirahamwe ry’Igihugu rya za Kaminuza n’Abakozi,ibyerekana, umushahara w’ifatizo kuri bamwe mu bakozi bo mu nzego zo hejuru mu nganda zimwe na zimwe z’imirimo wariyongereye cyane: urugero, ikigereranyo cy’umushahara w’inzobere muri siyansi ya mudasobwa warazamutse kugera ku $72,173, inyongera ya 7% mu mwaka umwe musa.

Nicholas Bloom, profesa w’ubukungu muri Kaminuza ya Stanford, avuga ko ibikenerwa n’abakozi birenze ugusakara kwihuse mu ruganda rw’umurimo, cyane cyane mu ikoranabuhanga.

Uruganda rw’imirimo y’ubukungu n’amafaranga- rusanzwe kenshi rusaba umuntu gukora akazi amasaha 70 mu cyumweru- na rwo rwongeje imishahara kugira ngo ruhe akazi abagashaka bashoboye kurushaho.

’’Imishahara yo hejuru ifungura amarembo y’amahirwe

Ku bw’iyo mpamvu, kenshi, abakiminuza bahabwa imishahara y’abantu batandatu “nk’inkota idatyaye yo guha akazi” mu miterere y’isoko ry’akazi k’ubu, nk’uko Rue Dooley, umujyanama mu by’umurimo mu Umuryango w’Ubugenzuzi bw’Abakozi, Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) uba muri Amerika akomeza abivuga.

Ibi bisobanura ko abandi bakozi bo ku rwego rwo hejuru bashobora gufata ibipfunyika bibyimbye by’imishahara mbere y’uko banava mu mazu bacumbikamo muri kaminuza.

Bloom akomeza kandi avuga ngo “Tubona inshuro nyinshi amakompanyi akubye inshuro ebyiri ubwinshi [bw’umushahara] buri nyuma y’amezi 18, bityo imishahara y’abakiminuza igendana bya hafi n’uko ku isoko byifashe.”

Muri tekinoloji, ibigo bito by’ubucuruzi na byo ubu birasabwa kwishyura abakozi bo hejuru imishahara ihanitse kugira ngo bigendane n’amashyirahamwe yahawe ingufu kurushaho.

Josh Brenner, Umuhuzabikorwa w’isoko ry’abashaka akazi, mu mujyi wa New York, avuga ko abakoresha bo muri Amerika bahemba abakozi bo muri tekinoloji bo mu mwaka wa mbere ikigereranyo cy’ibanze cy’umushahara wa $110,027

Abakiliya ba Nguyen baba akenshi baba bakiminuza akenshi babona akazi n’umushahara urenze kure igihembo cye cy’ubujyanama bw’imikorere n’imicungire.

Yizera ko ari ikintu cyiza. “Imishahara ihanitse ku bakozi bashya ku isoko ry’umurimo ni icyerekezo cyatangiye mu binyacumi by’imyaka ya vuba aha,” ni ko avuga.

Imishahara ihanitse ifungura imiryango y’amahirwe (opportunities) ku bantu ubundi batakayagize, kandi ntibitwara amafaranga ava kuri barya batangiriye ku mishahara yo hasi.”

Iradukunda Samson

Ahmed tawfek

Glimpse I had had of the Martians emerging from their planet, a kind glimpse I had had of the Martians emerging from the cylinder

TANGA IGITEKEREZO

Ibitekerezo