Mu Rwanda

Inkomoko yo kwitukuza uruhu biharawe cyane n’abagore n’ikibyihishe inyuma

Inkomoko yo kwitukuza uruhu biharawe cyane n’abagore n’ikibyihishe inyuma

Uko imyaka igenda ihita n’ indi igataha niko turushaho kubona abo twari tuzi bafite uruhu rwirabura bagenda baba inzobe yewe bamwe bakenda gusa nk’abazungu (Skin whitening, skin bleaching), ku buryo bitatworohera kubamenya rimwe na rimwe iyo ubaheruka kera. Niko kandi iyo tugenda mu nzira tubona abo guhindura ibara ry’uruhu ukoresheje amavuta byagizeho ingaruka zigaragara n’amaso zirimo kugira ibice bidasa n’ibindi.

Nyamara twese duhora twibaza ikibyihishe inyuma, tukibaza ngo: Byaje bite? Amateka se abivugaho iki? N’iki kibyihishe inyuma? Hejuru y’ingaruka tubonesha amaso se haba hari izindi? Kuki umubare w’abaharanira guhindura ibara ry’uruhu rwabo ku bwinshi ari abirabura? Ibyo n’ibindi byinshi bitandukanye nibyo Rwandamagazine.com yabakusanyirije. Ahanini turibanda cyane kubireba umugabane wacu wa Afurika nk’abanyarwanda bawutuyemo.

Kwitukuza ni igikorwa cyo guhindura uruhu ukoresheje uruvange rw’amavuta cyangwa imiti ugamije guhindura ibara ry’uruhu rwawe ngo ruse nk’urw’ abazungu/abera. Kwitukuza bigabanya kandi umusemburo bita melanin (soma melanine) mu mubiri.

Muri 2013, ubushakashatsi bwakozwe Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ryita ku buzima (OMS) bwagaragaje ko Nigeria ariyo ifite abagore benshi bakunda gutukuza uruhu rwabo kuko 77% bakoresha amavuta atukuza uruhu ku buryo buhoraho. Bari bakurikiwe na Togo ku mpuzandengo ya 59%, Afurika y’Epfo bari 35% naho Mali bakaba 25%.

Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe na Kaminuza ya Cape Town muri 2013 bwagaragazaga ko umugore umwe mu bagore 3 muri Afurika y’Epfo yitukuje. Impamvu bitukuza ziratandukanye ariko abenshi batangarije BBC ko bitukuza kuko baba bashaka kugira uruhu rwera (White skin). Inzobere mu mitekerereze zitangaza ko kwitukuza bituruka ahanini ku kutigirira icyizere cyangwa se kutikunda. Wabisoma mu nkuru BBC yahaye umutwe ugira uti ‘Africa: Where black is not really beautiful’.

Nomasonto "Mshoza" Mnisi, umuhanzikazi wo muri Afurika y’Epfo na we watukuje uruhu rwe yatangarije BBC ko kwitukuza byatumye arushaho kumva ari mwiza kurushaho ndetse no kwigirira icyizere.

Nyuma yo kumara igihe kinini anengwa cyane n’ibinyamakuru byo mu gihugu cyabo, "Mshoza" Mnisi yagize icyo abivugaho.

Yagize ati " Nahoze mfite uruhu rwirabura mu myaka myinshi. Nashakaga kureba uko urundi ruhande rumera. Nashakaga kureba uko byamera ngize uruhu rwera kandi ndishimye."

Muri 2013, kwitukuza byatwaraga akayabo "Mshoza" Mnisi kuko amake yatangaga ku nshuro imwe ari amadorali ya Amerika 590.

Ihuriro ryo gutukuza uruhu n’amateka

Kwitukuza, amateka atubwira ko byatangiye gushidukirwa cyane muri Afurika ahagana mu 1950 ubwo inkundura yo guharanira ubwigenge mu bihugu by’Afurika yasaga nkaho itangiye. Byatangiriye cyane cyane mu bihugu by’Afurika y’iburengerazuba dore ko ari naho haboneka umubare munini wabitukuza na nubu, bikomeza biza mu bihugu byo hagati muri Afurika birimo na Repebulika iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo duturanye. Iwacu aha mu Rwanda rero ntiharamenyekana neza igihe byahagereye gusa icyizwi ni uko bihari . Abenshi babibonagaho ni abakomoka muri Congo Kinshasa b’ababyinnyi cyangwa abakoraga mu mazu atunganya imisatsi yaba iy’abagore cyangwa abagabo.

Abenshi mu bitukuza aha muri Afurika bakoresha amavuta gusa umubare munini wabo ntibaba bazi n’imiti mvaruganda iba ikoze ayo mavuta n’ingaruka zayo.

Benshi rero mu bakoze ubushakashatsi ku mpamvu zihishe inyuma y’iyo nkundura y’abirabura bari kwitukuza babihuza n’amateka y’ubukoroni twaciyemo, poropaganda y’abazungu, itangazamakuru cyane cyane imbuga nkoranyambaga, uko umuntu w’inzobe afatwa mu muryango rusange w’Abanyafurika ndetse n’amafaranga yihishe inyuma y’ubwo bucuruzi, n’ibindi.

Abakoroni bagera muri Afurika mu bintu bya mbere by’ibanze babanje gukora byihuse ni ugutesha agaciro imico n’imigenzo gakondo Nyafurika basanganye abasogokuruza bacu ari nako babigisha iyabo ya kizungu. Bashyize imbaraga nyinshi mu kumvisha abanyafurika bari basanze muri Afurika ko ibyo bakora, ibyinshi ari ibibi kandi ari ikizira. Bihutiye rwose gusenya ubushongore n’ubukaka bw’imitekerereze y’Abanyafurika mu rwego rwo kubinjizamo ibyabo bari bazanye kandi koko ngo umukoroni mwiza ni ukuboha mu mutwe kurenza uko yakuboha ku mubiri kuko niyo yakubohora ku mubiri ariko mu mutwe utaribohora wowe ubwawe uhora uri umucakara we kandi unezerewe. Muri make berekanye ko ari abadasanzwe ndetse badusize bari hejuru iyo kandi aribo bazi ikiza gikwiriye kuri twe Abanyafurika; gusa ngo iyo babonaga ujya gusa nabo bagushyiraga ku buyobozi, ukayobora bene wanyu b’abacakara kugirango ube nk’agakingirizo kabo.

Mu bihe by’ubukoroni abasogokuruza bacu bahuye n’ikandamizwa ritagira akagero ku buryo byageze aho koko bakabona ko abazungu babarenze mbese ari nk’imana kuko bicaga uwo bashatse nta kirengera ku buryo kuba war’umwirabura byari ikirango cy’uko udashoboye, udatekereza neza, nta kintu kiza cyakuvaho mbese ukwiriye kuba umucakara gusa ibyo rero byagize ingaruka kuri benshi ku buryo nyuma y’ubwigenge kwitukuza benshi babibonagamo umunezero w’uko byibuze bene wabo nibabareba bazajya babaha agaciro bari barambuwe.

Mu gihe rero bimwe mu bihugu by’Afurika byari bitangiye kubona ubwigenge benshi cyane cyane abagore batangiye kwisanisha n’abazungu dore ko nabo bagirango bagaragare nk’uko ba nyirabuja babakoronije basaga. Nguko uko abagore benshi batangiye kubyitabira, maze abababonye bakababonamo abakomeye dore ko abenshi babaga ari n’abagore b’abagabo bari bakomeye muri icyo gihe. Nguko uko ubukoroni bwagize uruhare mu kwitukuza kwa bene wacu.

Uko ibyo byose byabaga niko hacurwaga na poropaganda (icengezamatwara) yo kwereka abirabura ko ikintu cyose kijyanye n’umukara ari kibi, umwijima ni mubi, shitani we ukora ibibi byose ni umukara bakamushushanya, umwanda wose ni umukara naho ikiza cyose gifite isuku bakagisanisha n’umweru kuko ari abera nyine. Mu cyongereza cyabo niho babivuga neza iyo bavuga ngo: white dove of peace, White Christmas, white collar, and white lie nk’ikinyuranyo cya Black Death, blackball, blackmail, Black Market, and black eye n’ibindi byinshi mu rwego rwo kwangisha abirabura uruhu rwabo.

Isi uko irushaho gutera imbere rero niko abazungu nabo barushaho guhindura uburyo bwo kugumya kutugira imbohe cyane cyane binyuze mw’ikoranabuhanga. Uyu munsi wowe nanjye n’undi wese dufite uburyo twiremera isi yacu twishakiye biciye mu mbuga nkoranyambaga aha rero niho hari gukoreshwa cyane muri iyi minsi mu kurushaho gukongeza irari ryo kwihindura uruhu ku bato. Aha niho baca bakadutangariza ko ifoto iyi n’iyi yaciye ibintu kw’isi wajya kuyireba ugasanga n’iy’umwirabura ariko utagisa nabo; witukuje, witeyeho imisatsi inagana iyo mu mugongo mbese utagisa natwe, wajya kubakurikirwa cyane kuri Instagram na za Span chat ugasanga nuko ni abirabura batagisa natwe bajya kubihuhura noneho bakazana amafoto abiri iya vuba n’iya kera (before & after); iya kera ugasanga yari umwirabura nkawe ariko utazwi naho iya vuba ni umwirabura witukuje kandi uzwi rwose ku rwego rw’isi.

Ibyo n’ino wacu byarahageze cyane cyane ku bahanzi dore ko aribo ababyiruka bafatiraho urugero, tubona amafoto yabo ya kera ari ibikara batazwi nyamara ay’ubu bakaba ari inzobe kandi bazwi bakomeye. Ibi rero ni ubutumwa bwihuse kandi bufite gihamya ku mwana ukibyiruka “Abakomeye bose ndetse beza mu by’uburanga bashidukirwa na buri wese ni inzobe” ubwo uw’igikara ahita yibona nk’ufite icyo abura ngo agaragare ku rwego rwo hejuru nyamara akibuka ko ajya aca ku maduka acuruza amavuta yamufasha kubona inzobe abura maze akabayoboka.

Iyo rero bamaze kurema iyo shusho mu bitekerezo bya benshi hiremamo igitekerezo kibemeza ko abantu b’inzobe ari abantu bakomeye mbese kuba uri inzobe cyane cyane ku bagore ugasanga bisobanuye ko uri umuntu ufite igikundiro, ukurura abagabo, ubaho ubuzima bwo mu rwego rwo hejuru mbese uri umusirimu mu Rwanda ho tuti ni umuzungu sha!!!! ndetse wifitiye ikizere unabigendera,ahandi muri bimwe mu bice by’Afurika bakavuga ko abakobwa b’inzobe babona abagabo vuba kurenza abirabura.

Nubwo biharawe ariko gutukuza uruhu bigira ingaruka nyinshi zinyuranye

Ibivugwa ku mpamvu byo ni byinshi gusa reka dusoreze kuy’amafaranga. Ku mpuzandengo yakozwe igaragaza ko umurego wo kwitukuza nugumya kugendera ku muvuduko nk’uwo uriho ubu uyu mwaka uzarangira ari ubucuruzi bufite agaciro ka miliyari 18 za amadolari muri Afurika . Ni amafaranga menshi cyane benshi batakwitesha mu gihe no kwitukuza bituma abayakora bishimira ko benshi bamaranira gusa nabo. Ikinyamakuru Metro mu nkuru cyahaye umutwe ugira uti ’Inside the dark world of skin whitening’ cyatangaje ko muri 2016 ubucuruzi bw’amavuta atukuza uruhu bwinjizaga hagati ya miliyari 8 na 15 z’amadorali ya Amerika.

Muri make byinshi mu byihishe inyuma yo kwitukuza ni ipfumwe ry’uwo uri we cyangwa uko usa, uburyo ushaka ko abandi bagufata mu muryango mugari nyafurika, ubwamamare n’ubucuruzi.

Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe na Kaminuza ya Cape Town bwari buyobowe na Dr Davids bwagaraje ko kwitukuza bitera indwara zirimo Kanseri y’uruhu, iy’umwijima n’impyiko n’izindi ngaruka nyinshi mbi z’uruhu harimo n’ibyo tubonesha amaso.

Wowe wirabura cyangwa wamaze kwitukuza yewe nawe wabiteganyaga ujye uzirikana amagambo impirimbanyi y’umwirabura Marcus Garvey agira ati " Kuba wirabura ku ruhu si ikirango cy’ubugwali cyangwa ubuswa ahubwo ni ikirango cy’ishema ry’uwo uri we naho ukomoka. " Maze uterwe ishema n’uko usa kuko abo wisanisha nabo ntibemera ko uri umwe muri bo.

Hydroquinone nubwo iba mu mavuta atukuza ni uburozi bukomeye, kuko hari ubwoko bwayo bukoreshwa mu guhanagura amafoto, ndetse no mu ikorwa ry’ama-teinture ashyirwa mu musatsi.

Minisiteri y’ubuzima yemeje amoko y’ibikorwamo amavuta bigera ku 1 342 Abanyarwanda bakwiye kwirinda cyangwa kurindwa. Mu mavuta agomba kwirindwa harimo amavuta agezweho muri iki gihe avangirwa mu Rwanda bita ‘Umukorogo’ n’andi moko 95, ngo abantu bashobora kwisiga ariko bahawe urugero (quantity) batagomba kurenza kugira ngo bitabagiraho ingaruka.

Mu mavuta Minisiteri y’ubuzima isaba ko abaturage bakwitondera, harimo ayitwa Peau Claire, Fair&White, n’andi arimo ibimeze nk’ubumara byitwa “Hydroquinone, lead,…” n’ubundi bunyuranye. Amavuta yo kwisiga yemewe mu Rwanda ni atarengeje 0,07% ya Hydroquinone.

Abahanga bavuga ko igituma uruhu rwacu ruba igikara cyangwa rugasa neza kiva mu mubiri imbere, kidaturuka inyuma, bityo ngo ntabwo wakwisiga amavuta kuruhu ugamije guhindura ibituruka imbere ngo bizaguhire.

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