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Igihugu kiri kwitegura ko gishobora kuzimira

Igihugu kiri kwitegura ko gishobora kuzimira

Tekereza akanya gato ku nzu yanyu, ku hantu ukunda kurusha ahandi ku isi.

N’uburyo bigoye gutekereza ko aho hantu hashobora kuva ku butaka bw’isi burundu. Bisa n’ibidashoboka.

Gusa ku baturage benshi mu birwa bimwe na bimwe, ubwo bwoba ni impamo.

Kuzamuka kw’urugero rw’inyanja kubera ihindagurika ry’ikirere riri gutuma ubutaka burengerwa bakanabura amazi meza.

BBC Mundo yarebye uko bimeze ku gihugu gito kiri mu nyanja ya Pasifika, Tuvalu, gishaka ko ibyo biryozwa ibihugu bihumanya ikirere kurusha ibindi ku isi.

Iki gihugu buhoro buhoro kiri kwitegura ibintu bibi cyane: Kurengerwa burundu k’ubutaka bwacyo bwose.

Minisitiri w’ubutabera, itumanaho n’ububanyi n’amahanga wa Tuvalu, Simon Kofe, yatanze ubutumwa bukomeye mu nama ku ihindagurika ry’ikirere ya COP26 iheruka kubera i Glasgow muri Ecosse.

Yagize ati: "Turi kurohama, ariko n’isi yose niko birimo kugenda".

Ahagaze mu mazi amugera ku mavi ahantu mu myaka micye ishize hari ubutaka bwumutse, Kofe yavuze ko akaga Tuvalu irimo uyu munsi ari ikimenyetso cy’ingaruka z’ihindagurika ry’ikirere zizaba mbi kurushaho.

Urugero rw’inyanja, icyago kiri kuza
Tuvalu igizwe n’ibirwa icyenda bitoya biri muri 4,000Km uvuye muri Australia. Ibihugu bituranyi cya hafi ni Kiribati, Samoa na Fidji,

Minisitiri Kofe yabwiye BBC Mundo ati: "Ni igihugu gishashe gifite ubutumburuke buto. Ahantu hari hejuru ni kuri metero enye hejuru y’urugero rw’inyanja."

Iki gihugu cyose hamwe cy’ubuso bwa 26 km2 gusa gituwe n’abaturage 12,000.

Kimwe na Kiribati na Maldives, Tuvalu nayo ni igihugu kigeramiwe by’umwihariko n’ingaruka zo gushyuha kw’isi.

Ibice bimwe by’ibi bihugu biri ku butaka bufite ishusho y’impeta ifunze cyangwa y’igice y’ubutaka bukikije ikizenga cy’amazi.

Minisitiri Kofe ati: "Tuba ku duce dutoya tw’ubutaka ahantu hamwe na hamwe hakurya ubona inyanja hakuno ikizenga cy’amazi.

"Ibyo twabonye mu myaka ishize, ni uko uko inyanja izamuka, tubona isuri nini ku bice bimwe by’ikirwa."

Tuvalu yagiye kandi yugarizwa n’inkubi z’imiyaga ikaze mu bihe by’ubushyuhe, nk’uko Kofe abivuga. Ubushyuhe bwangije ubworozi bw’amafi muri iki kirwa.

Ariko hari ikindi kibazo gikomeye: ingaruka z’amazi y’inyanja ku mazi meza.

Mu bice bimwe, amazi y’inyanja yinjiye mu masoko nk’uko minisitiri Kofe w’imyaka 37 abivuga.

Ati: "Muri rusange tubona amazi meza ava ku mvura, ariko ku birwa bimwe na bimwe, baracukuraga bakabona amasoko y’amazi afutse.

"Ubu, ntabwo bigishoboka kubera kwinjira cyane kw’amazi y’inyanja, none ubu tubeshwaho gusa n’amazi y’imvura."

Kwinjira cyane kw’aya mazi y’umunyu byatumye n’ubutaka buhingwa butacyera.

Leta ya Taiwan ubu itera inkunga ikanagenzura umushinga wo guhinga ibiribwa mu buryo budasanzwe muri Tuvalu.

Kofe ati: "Urwunyunyu mu mucanga rwatumye ubuhinzi bugorana none ubu dutunzwe ahanini n’ibintu biva hanze.

"Umushinga wa leta ya Taiwan byabaye ngombwa ko uzana ubutaka n’ifumbire bivuye hanze."

Arthur Webb umushakashatsi muri kaminuza ya Wollongong muri Australia ukora mu mushinga wo gusigasira imbibi za Tuvalu avuga ko ibihingwa bitihanganira urugero rw’umunyu rw’amazi y’inyanja.

Intambara ibi bihugu birwana
Ibihugu by’ibirwa nka Tuvalu bimaze imyaka irenga 30 bisaba ko ku isi hafatwa ingamba zihamye mu kurwanya kwangiza ikirere.

Mu 1990, ibi bihugu biri mu nyanja ya Pasifika hamwe n’ibindi birwa bya Karayibe n’ibyo mu nyanja y’Ubuhinde nka Maldives, byakoze ihuriro ngo bigire ingufu z’ijambo mu kurwanya ihindagurika ry’ikirere.

Ihuriro ry’ibi bihugu bitoya ryiswe AOSIS, ubu ririmo ibihugu 39 kandi ryagize uruhare mu kwereka isi n’ibihugu bikize ingaruka z’ihindagurika ry’ikirere.

Ibi bihugu bisaba ko byishyurwa "ibyangiritse", ndetse byasabye ko iyo ngingo ishyirwa mu masezerano ya Paris yo mu 2015.

Mu nama ya COP26 iheruka, umukuru wa AOSIS, Gaston Browne, minisitiri w’intebe w’ibirwa bya Antigua-na-Barbuda, yibukije ko "ibi bihugu bitoya by’ibirwa bitanga munsi ya 1% gusa ku byuka bihumanya ikirere."

Yagize ati: "Ibihugu byacu nibyo bifite uruhare ruto cyane mu kwangirika kw’ikirere ku isi, ariko nibyo byishyura ikiguzi kinini."

Icyo kiguzi cyagiye kiboneka buhoro buhoro kubera ubushakashatsi bw’abahanga.

Icyo abahanga muri science bavuga
Itsinda mpuzabihugu ry’abahanga mu by’ikirere rya ONU/UN ryiswe GIEC muri raporo yaryo yasohotse mu kwezi kwa munani rivuga ko urugero rw’inyanja rwazamutse inshuro eshatu ku rwego rw’isi hagati ya 1901 na 2018, ni urugero rwa 3,7mm ku mwaka.

"Ariko ibintu ni bibi cyane ku birwa bya Pasifika", nk’uko Morgan Wairiu inzobere yari iyoboye abanditse iyo raporo yabibwiye BBC.

Ati: "Muri Pasifika y’epfo, icyigereranyo cyo kuzamuka kw’inyanja kiri hagati ya 5 na 11mm ku mwaka hagati ya 1900 na 2018."

Inyanja yinjiye mu masoko byangiza mazi meza babonaga

Nubwo nta mibare yihariye iriho kuri Tuvalu, "kuzamuka kw’urugero rw’inyanja ku isi kuri Tuvalu yo ni icyago gikomeye" nk’uko Webb abivuga.

Ati: "Ni ubutaka bunini bwakoreshwa bumaze kurengerwa n’inyanja. No kuzamuka kwa 3.7mm zonyine ku mwaka ni akaga kuri ibi bihugu."

Raporo ya GIEC iteganya ko inyanja izazamuka ku isi ku rugero rusangerwo hejuru ya metero imwe kuva ubu kugeza mu 2100, mu gihe ibyuka bihumanya ikirere bikomeje koherezwa.

Raporo yabo igira iti: "Kuzamuka kuri hafi ya 2m kugeza mu 2100 no kuri 5m kugeza mu 2150 igihe imyuka ihumanya ikomeje koherezwa ni ibintu bishoboka cyane ukurikije gushonga k’urubura ku mpera za Groenland na Antarctique."

Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe mu 2018 n’abahanga bo muri Amerika no mu Buholandi buvuga ko "igice kinini cy’ibi birwa ntikizaba kigiturwa hagati muri iki kinyejena".

Impamvu ni "ukwiyongera kw’inyanja kuzatera kurengerwa kw’ubutaka."

Icyo bifuza ku mategeko mpuzamanga
Imbere y’ihindagurika ry’ikirere riteye inkeke no kubura kw’ingamba zikomeye ku rwego rw’isi, Tuvalu irashaka indi nzira y’ahazaza.

Minisitiri Kofe ati: "Ikibi kurusha ibindi ni uko bizaba ngombwa ko tuva hano kuko ibirwa byacu bizaba byarengewe n’inyanja.

"Kandi kuri iyi saha ku bw’itegeko mpuzamahanga igihugu ntigishobora kugira imbibi mu nyanja kidafite ubutaka gishushanywaho."

Yongeraho ati: "Amategeko mpuzamahanga ubu ntabwo ari ku ruhande rwacu mu gihe twarengerwa, kuko ni ikintu kitabayeho mbere, nta na rimwe twigeze tubona igihugu kizimira kubera ihindagurika ry’ikirere."

Tuvalu ubu irashaka inzira z’amategeko kugira ngo yemerwe nk’igihugu ku isi nubwo bwose cyaba kitagifite ubutaka, igakomeza kugira uburenganzira ku mutungo kamere mu gace k’inyanja kayo, nk’uko Kofe abisobanura.

Ati: "Muri politiki yacu mpuzamahanga, ubu igihugu iyo gishaka kugirana umubano na Tuvalu tugisaba kwemera ko Tuvalu ari igihugu iteka ryose kandi cyaharanira ibiri mu gice cy’inyanja cyayo buri gihe."

Bitandukanye na Kilibati, Tuvalu ntabwo yaguze ubutaka kuri Fidji, nubwo Kofe avuga ko iki gihugu "cyatangaje ko cyagurisha ubutaka kuri Tuvalu nikomeza kurengerwa."

Uyu mutegetsi yirinda gukomeza gutinda cyane ku kwimukira ahandi biboneka ko gushoboka, akavuga ko iyo ariyo nzira ya nyuma y’izindi.

Mu 2009, ibihugu bikize byemeye gutanga miliyari 100$ guhera mu 2020 kugira ngo afashe ibihugu guhindura imikorere bigatangira gukoresha ingufu zitangiza ikirere.

Ariko mu nama ya COP26 leta y’Ubwongereza n’intumwa ya Amerika John Kerry batangaje ko iyo ntego ishobora kutagerwaho mbere ya 2023.Pourquoi la politique climatique de la Chine nous concerne tous

Ku baturage ba Tuvalu, amaherezo yo guhinduka impunzi z’ihinduka ry’ikirere ariyongera buri mwaka wo kutagira igikorwa ku isi.

Simon Kofe ati: "Biteye umubabaro ukomeye kuri buri wese wumva ko inzu ye izarengerwa mu myaka iri imbere. Ko abana be n’abuzukuru bashobora kutazagira igihugu.

"Birababaje, kandi iyo wumvise abatuye Tuvalu benshi, bafite amateka akomeye ku butaka bwabo n’umuco hano kuri ibi birwa. Birakomeye cyane gutekereza kubura Tuvalu ahazaza."

Ubutumwa bwa Simon Kofe ku nama ya COP26 : "Turi kurohama, ariko n’isi yose niko birimo kugenda."

Mu mashuri ya Tuvalu ikibazo cyo kuzamuka kw’inyanja kigishwa abana kuva ari bato


Muri Tuvalu bakoresheje imifuka y’umucanga bagerageza kubuza inyanja kwigira imbere

BBC

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