Inkuru Zicukumbuye

Bigenda bite iyo URUMOGI rukugeze mu mutwe?

Bigenda bite iyo URUMOGI rukugeze mu mutwe?

Wigeze witegereza ibiganza byawe? Ndavuga kureba neza ukitegereza mu biganza byawe. Ushobora gutekereza ko koko wabikoze ariko buriya nk’uko ako gafoto ko hejuru kabigaragaza, abantu urumogi rwageze mu mutwe, iyo bitegereje mu biganza byabo babona biteye amabengeza cyane kurusha uko bisanzwe. Ngo hari n’abumva ingoma zivugira mu matwi yabo igihe umuyaga uhuha…Iby’urumogi ni ‘agahomamunwa’.

Bigenda bite ubundi ngo ikimera cyagaragaye bwa mbere ku Kibaya cya Tibete gishobore guhindura uko umuntu abona mu buryo butandukanye n’uko asanzwe abibona cyangwa bisanzwe? Ibanga nta rindi, ni ibigize urumogi bizwi nka ‘Cannabinoid’ twise mu Kinyarwanda ‘imbarumogi’.

Mu gihe ibimera by’urumogi bamwe banita ‘ako ku mugongo w’ingona’ bizwiho kuba bivamo ubwoko bwa ‘cannabinoid’ [imbarumogi] bugera ku 140, hari ubwoko bumwe busa buzwi nk’ubutera umuntu kujya ‘high’. Ubu na bwo buzwi nka ‘tetrahydrocannabinol cyangwa ‘THC’.

THC ni yo tuza gukoresha muri iyi nkuru tuvuga imbarumogi itera abantu kubona ibintu uko bitari igihe banyoye urumogi.

Iyo umuntu anyoye urumogi arutumuye yarwitwikiye cyangwa akarwinjiza mu mubiri aruhumetse mu bundi buryo, iyi ‘THC’ “yinjira mu bihaha byawe ubundi ikajya mu maraso,” nk’uko Daniele Piomelli, Umwalimu muri Kaminuza ya California, muri Irvine School of Medicine abivuga.

Ibi bice by’urumogi bikora urugendo rurerure bijya mu mwijima, aho urungano ngogozi ruhindura iyi THC ituma umuntu ahindura uko abona ibintu.

Iyo THC igeze mu mubiri “yongera ubukana mu buryo bwihuse cyane,” nk’uko Piomelli yabibwiye Live Science.

Mu minota 20, urungano rw’amaraso ruba rusakaza uduce twa THC muri buri gice cy’umubiri harimo n’ubwonko aho bishobora kugira ingaruka ku mikorere yabwo n’ibinyabutabire bibubamo.

Kelly Drew, umwalimu w’ubutabire kuri Kaminuza ya Alaska Fairbanks avuga ko “iyo HTC ivuye mu bihaha, imera nk’isasu ryihuse rirashwe ku bwonko.”

Uduce twa THC duca mu maraso yo mu bwonko twishakira inzira maze tukinjira mu nyakira [receptors] zisanzwe zakira izindi ngirabuzima zitwa ‘endocannabinoids’ umubiri wikorera ubwawo.

Izi nyakira ziba muri sisitemu yitwa ‘endocannabinoied’ ifasha umubiri mu gihe cy’ukujagarara k’ubwonko, iyo umubiri wakira amafunguro, no mu gihe cy’ububabare bwawo nk’uko Piomelli usanzwe anayobora Ikigo cy’Ubushakashatsi ku Rumogi i Irvine akomeza abisobanura.

“Urungano rwa endocannabinoid ni urungano rukomeye mu bwonko kuko ari rwo rugenzura uko ubwonko burekura ibimenyetso ibice by’ubwonko byifashisha mu gutumanaho,” nk’uko Piomelli yabivuze.

Ibi bimenyetso ni byo bimwe mu bice by’ubwonko bikoresha bisohora imisemburo nka dopamine na serotonin mu byuho bitandukanya ibice by’ubwonko bizwi nka ‘neuron’. Ibyo byuho bizwi nka ‘synapse’.

‘Neuron’ yo ku mpera ya ‘synapse’ yitwa ‘postsynaptic neuron’, ni na yo ifata umwanzuro wo gucana umuriro ikurikije ibyo yakiriye,” nkuko Drew yabibwiye Live Science.

Ibi bimenyetso byo mu bwonko bisa nk’amashanyarazi akorera ku burebure buhambaye kuko mu bwonko habamo za ‘neuron’ zigera kuri miliyari 85 na za tiriyali zigera ku 100 zisa nk’izihuza (connections) hagati yazo.

Iyo THC yinjiye ubwonko, hari uduce duto tw’ibinyabutabire dusakara muri ‘synapse’ aho “dukora inyakira zitwa CB1,” nkuko Drew abivuga. Iyi THC izamura ‘volume’ y’ubwonko kandi ibice by’ubwonko ikoraho, haba hari ibyago byinshi ko bidakomeza kohereza ibimenyetso nk’ibisanzwe.

Piomelli ati “Gutangira kwiyumva mu buryo budasanzwe ni ibintu biba byoroshye.” “THC ijya mu mutwe nk’inyundo [ya kinubi,” ikinjiza mu bwonko ibimenyetso ubwonko buba butoroherejemo mu bisanzwe.

Aha rero iyo ubwonko burekeye aho gukora mu buryo bwa kamere, bibangamira uko busanzwe butanga amakuru mu bice bibugize, bigatuma umuntu atangira kwitwara uko bidasanzwe.

Icyakora ngo abahanga muri siyansi ntibari bavumbura neza ngo bamenye mu by’ukuri uko bigenda ngo umuntu yumve ibyishimo bidasanzwe.

Ngo impamvu ni uko ku ruhande rumwe, nko muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, amategeko atorohereza abashakashatsi bifuza gukora ubushakashatsi ku rumogi.

Gusa ngo muri bike abashakashatsi babashije kubona kugeza ubu, THC bisa n’aho iyo igeze mu bwonko icomokora cyangwa igafungura imikorere y’ihanamakuru risanzwe mu bwonko.

Iri hanamakuru ni ryo mu bisanzwe ritubashisha kurota ku manywa no gutekereza ku bihe byahise ndetse n’ibizaza. Iyo ubwonko bwacu bwibanze ku murimo umwe, ducecekesha iri hanamakuru tukareka igice cyo mu bwonko gitegeka umubiri kigakora akazi.

Hari ibimenyetso bigaragaza ko THC igira ingaruka kuri iri hanamakuru ryo mu bwonko gusa abashakashasi ntibazi neza uko bigenda. Mu bwonko huzuyemo inyakira z’ibigize urumogi nyinshi ndetse yemwe no mu duce aho inzira z’ihanamakuru ryo mu bwonko zihurira ziherereyemo.

Birashoboka ko, nk’uko Piomelli abivuga, iyo THC isinziriza cyangwa igahagarika uburyo busanzwe bw’itumanaho ryo mu bwonko iyo yihuje na za nyakira, ariko biranashoboka ko THC icecekesha iryo tumanaho biciye “mu ngaruka zitaziguye zinagera ku zindi nyakira za cannabinoid mu tundi turere tw’ubwonko.”

Abahanga mu bumenyi baracyakora aho bwabaga ngo babashe gutahura impamvu iyo umuntu anyoye urumogi yiyumva ahindutse akajya ‘high’ gusa hari impamvu zimwe na zimwe zibatera gutekereza ku ngaruka ko igice karemano cy’ihanamakuru ryo mu bwonko kiri mu bituma bibabera ihurizo.

Nkuko Piomelli abivuga gusa n’ucomokora igice karemano cy’ihanamakuru ryo mu bwonko bikorwa n’urumogi "bidutwara ahantu mu bwonko aho akamaro k’ibintu bitubaho kaba ari gake kurusha ibyo bintu ubwabyo: ibiganza ntibiba bikiri ikintu gusa dukoresha dukora cyangwa duterura, ahubwo biba ikintu twumva ko cyifitemo agaciro gakomeye imbere.”

Icyakora, abantu bashobora kumva cyangwa kugirwaho ingaruka n’urumogi mu buryo butandukanye. “Ibyiyumvo byo guhinduka tukegerana n’ibintu bisanzwe, ibyo tubona cyangwa dukoresha buri munsi, si ibintu biba kimwe ku bantu bose bo ku isi ariko biba iyo twakoresheje urumogi rufite ibigero byo hejuru bya THC, nk’uko Piomelli akomeza abivuga.

Imbarumogi ya THC ifite uburyo ikora ku gice kamere cy’ihanamakuru ryo mu bwonko. Na none, mu buryo bw’igihe gito, iyi THC izamura ikigero cy’umusemburo wa dopamine, nkuko ubushakashatsi bwo mu 2017 bwakozwe n’ikinyamakuru Nature bwabigaragaje.

Drew avuga ko “buri kiyobyabwenge gifite uko gihindura uko umuntu yiyumva kigira ingaruka ku mikorere y’ubwonko.”

Ingaruka

Ingaruka za ‘high’ ziterwa n’urumogi rwinjijwe mu mubiri rutumuwe cyangwa mu mwuka zimara amasaha make nubwo bishobora gufata igihe kirekire ibyo kurya ngo bitangire kugaruka abarukoresha. Ikindi, mu gihe urumogi atari ikintu kibi nkuko rwaje kuba mu kinyejana cya 20, kurukoresha bijyana no kwihara ku ruhande rumwe.

Mu gihe urumogi rwemewe mu bihugu bimwe aho rukoreshwa mu kwishimisha no mu buvuzi, mu bindi bihugu harimo n’u Rwanda ikoreshwa ryarwo rihanwa n’amategeko.

Ni ngombwa kandi kwibuka ko urumogi ari ikimera gikoreshwa kandi cy’ingenzi cyane mu buvuzi.

Urumogi rushobora guca muri nyababyeyi, ni yo mpamvu abatwite bakwiye kurugendera kure. Kurukoresha cyane mu bugimbi n’ubwangavu na byo bishobora guteza ibibabo, nkuko Piomelli abivuga.

Urugero, urumogi- by’umwihariko urwifitemo imbarumogi nka ‘spice’- zishobora gutuma uburwayi bwo mu mutwe, ‘ubusazi’ buba igikatu. “Abantu bazi ko bagira uburwayi bwo mu mutwe, ntibakwiye gutumura urumogi.”

Icya nyuma, urumogi rugira ingaruka ku bushobozi bwo gutwara ibinyabiziga, cyane cyane ku batwara bidahoraho. Drew agira inama abantu yo kudatwara ikinyabiziga icyo ari cyo cyose mu gihe cy’amasaha atatu nyuma yo kunywa urumogi.

Hanyuma rero, imbarumogi ya THC iva mu bwonko, ubwinshi bw’amaraso buyijyana mu bwonko bukayitwara mu mwijima aho yangirikira ubundi igasohokera mu nkari.

Ushobora kunywa urumogi ukabona ibiganza byawe birashashagirana- nyamara muri icyo gihe cyose uwabyitegereza, yabona nta cyahindutse.

TANGA IGITEKEREZO

Ibitekerezo(0)