Inkuru Zicukumbuye

Isaha n’isaha byarwana: Ibihugu bya Afurika bishobora gukozanyaho kubera imipaka

Isaha n’isaha byarwana: Ibihugu bya Afurika bishobora gukozanyaho kubera imipaka

Bimwe mu bihugu bya Afurika bimaze imyaka itari mike bishyamiranye kubera ubutaka bwo ku mbibi zibihuza kikaba ikintu gishyira mu kaga umutekano w’abaturage babyo kinatuma imibanire hagati yabyo ihoramo agatotsi kandi isaha n’isaha haba hari amaraso ashobora kumeneka ashingiye kuri iki kibazo.

Ubukoloni bukirangira, nyuma y’aho byinshi mu bihugu bya Afurika biboneye ubwigenge bikareka gutegekwa “mu buryo buziguye’’ n’ibyo mu Burayi, hari ibihugu bitigeze bikemura amakimbirane ngo byemeranye ku gihugu runaka nyir’ubutaka cyane cyane ubwo ku mipaka bihuriyeho.

Vuba ahangaha byinshi mu bihugu bya Afurika byagiye byisanga mu makimbirane ashingiye kuri icyo kibazo gusa ukutumva ibintu kimwe hagati ya Kenya na Somalia ku gihugu cyaba ari nyir’icyambu cyo ku Nyanja y’Abahinde ni cyo kibazo cyavuzwe cyane mu bitangazamakuru kuko icyo kibazo ubu kiri mu rukiko mpuzamahanga nyuma y’aho ibyo bihugu binaniriwe kugukemura mu bwumvikane bitarinze byajya imbere y’ubucamanza.

Tanzania na Malawi

Tanzania na Malawi zimaze iminsi myinshi zitumvikana ku waba afite uburenganzira bwo kwitwa nyir’Ikiyaga gitandukanya ibyo bihugu byombi. Muri Tanzania, icyo kiyaga cyitwa Nyasa ariko muri Malawi kikitwa Ikiyaga cya Malawi.

Mu binyacumi by’imyaka ishize ibi bihugu bibiri byombi byombi byagiye buri kimwe kivuga ko iki kiyaga ari icyacyo kugeza n’aho Malawi yavuze ko ishobora kurega Tanzania mu rukiko mpuzamahanga rw’i La Haye mu Buholandi.

Uyu mwiryane ni umwe mu ishingiye ku mipaka bimwe mu bihugu bya Afurika byasigiwe nk’umurage kuva mu bihe by’ubukoloni kuko Malawi ivuga ko umupaka w’icyo kiyaga ukwiye kugendera ku masezerano Ubudage bwagiranye n’Ubwongereza mu 1886.

Iki kiyaga cyitwa Malawi n’ab’i Lilongwe, ab’i Dar bakacyita ’Nyasa

Malawi ivuga ko uruhande ihagazeho muri iki kibazo ku mupaka ugaragara na none rushingiye ku masezerano ya Cairo yo mu mwaka wa 1964 yategetse ko imipaka yose y’ibihugu izaguma nk’uko yabihawe n’abayobozi bo mu gihe cy’ubukoloni mbere y’uko ibyo bibona ubwigenge.

Tanzania yo ihakana ibisobanuro bya Malawi ivuga ko itegeko rikwiye kubahirizwa ari iry’uko buri gihugu muri byombi gifite kimwe cya kabiri cy’iyo kiyaga kandi umupaka uri hagati muri icyo kiyaga nyine.

Ingero z’ibiyaga bigiye bigabanwa n’ibihugu bibiri buri kimwe gifite igice cy’icyo kiyaga ni nk’Ikiyaga cya Geneva gifitwe n’Ubufaransa n’Ubusuwisi, Ikiyaga cya Chad gihuriweho na Chad, Cameroon, Niger na Nigeria.

Kenya na Somalia: Ni iki barwanira?

Hashize imyaka Kenya na Somalia zikimbiranye kubera kutumvikana ku mupaka wo mu mazi y’inyanja y’u Buhindi.

Urukiko mpuzamahanga rw’i La Haye byitezwe ko ruzatangira kumva urubanza rw’ibi bihugu byombi kuri iki kibazo guhera ku itariki ya 15 Werurwe uyu mwaka byumvikana ko umwanzuro ruzafata uzashimisha igihugu ntunyure ikindi.


Ikarita igaragaza agace katumvikanwaho hagati ya Kenya na Somalia

Ibi bihugu byombi bikimbiranye kubera ahantu nyaburanga hashushe nk’ihembe hari ku buso bwa 100.oookm2 mu Nyanja y’Ubuhindi.

Kenya ivuga ko uwo mupaka ukwiye gukurikiza umurongo umwe uyiha igice kinini cy’Inyanja y’Abahindi ndetse iki gihugu cyamaze gutanga ibyangombwa biha uburenganzira amakompanyi acukura amavuta ngo akorere ibikorwa muri ako gace katumvikanwaho.

Somalia ku ruhande rwayo yifuza ko uwo mupaka wahindurwa igahabwa agace katumvikanwaho. Umwanzuro kuri iki kibazo bishoboka ko uzanzura uburyo ibi bihugu bibiri byabigenza mu buryo bwa dipolomasi mu minsi iza.

Kenya na Uganda

Ibihugu bya Kenya na Uganda yigeze gushyamirana kubera ikirwa gito kiri mu Kiyaga cya Victoria cyitwa Migingo. Abaturage benshi ba Kenya bari bazamuye amajwi cyane binubira ko ngo bahafatirwaga bakanahohoterwa n’abapolisi n’abasirikare ba Uganda hanyuma y’aho biza kuvugwa ko Uganda yitaga icyo kirwa icyayo.

Abanya-Kenya benshi muri icyo gihe bashinje guverinoma ya Perezida wacyuye igihe Mwai Kibaki kudashyiraho ingamba zikomeye zo kurinda Abanyakenya bibasirwaga n’inzego z’umutekano za Uganda.

Ibi bihugu byombi ariko byaje gushyiraho akanama gahuriweho n’impande zombi ngo kazemeze nyir’iki kirwa wa nyawe, intambwe yabaye igabanije ubushyamirane hagati yabyo ndetse n’andi makimbirane ashbora kubivamo akaba yazambya umubano hagati y’ibyo bihugu byombi.

Ubu hari umutuzo kuri icyo kirwa ndetse abacuruzi baturuka muri ibyo bihugu bakomeje n’ibikorwa by’ubucuruzi bwabo kuri icyo kirwa cya Migingo.

Ethiopia na Sudan

Mu kwezi kwa Gashyantare 2021, Sudan yahamagaye Ambasaderi wayo muri Ethiopia nyuma y’aho ibyo bihugu byombi bizuriye akaboze k’umwiryane ushingiye ku mupaka w’ahitwa al-Fashqa nyuma y’uko buri gihugu gitangaje ko igice kinini cy’ubutaka bwera cyane muri ako gace ari icyacyo. Ako gace kari gasanzwe gahingwaho n’abahinzi bo muri Ethiopia.

Buri gihugu cyaregaga ikindi gukora ibikorwa by’ubwicanyi muri ako gace binavugwa ko hari abasirikare baguye mu mirwano ishingiye kuri ayo makimbirane.

Sudan yashinje Ethiopia kwinjirira ubutaka bwayo ndetse ikohereza abarwanyi muri ako gace bivugwa ko bashotoye ingabo za Sudan bagakozanyaho.

Icyakora Ethiopia ivuga ko hari “umuntu wa gatatu’’ utera Sudan kuzana ubushyamirane n’intambara muri ako gace ko ku mupaka binashyira mu kaga umutekano w’ibyo bihugu byombi cyane cyane muri iki gihe leta ya Addis Ababa ihanganye n’abayobozi bo muri Tigray yo yita umutwe w’iterabwoba.

Uyu mwiryane wa Ethiopia na Sudan wazamuye icyoba cy’uko hashobora kwaduka intambara hagati y’ibi bihugu byombi ikintu cyashyira rwose mu kaga umutekano wo mu Karere k’Ihembe rya Afurika.

Sudan y’Epfo na Sudan

Sudan na Sudan y’Epfo zimaze igihe zishyamiranye kuko zitumva kimwe nyir’Intara ya Abyei iherereye ku mupaka w’ibyo bihugu byombi.

Ubu bushyamirane bwavutse nyuma gato y’aho Sudan y’Epfo iboneye ubwigenge ikiyomora kuri Sudan mu mwaka w’ 2011. Abatuye muri iyi Ntara bagerageje gukora kamarampaka ngo babe baba byemewe abaturage ba Sudan y’Epfo icyakora Sudan irabidobya.

Eritrea na Ethiopia

Eritrea na Ethiopia zimaranye igihe kirekire amakimbirane ashngiye ku mupaka aho zirwanira agace ko ku mupaka wabyo kitwa Badme. Ibi bihugu byombi byigeze kumara imyaka irenga icumi birwana hanyuma Eritrea yiyomora kuri Ethiopia, irigenga.

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