Inkuru Zicukumbuye

Ibyo twibaza ku buzima ku yindi mibumbe byaba byose ari ukwibeshya?

Inkuru ku binyabuzima bita ’aliens’ bishobora kuba biba ahandi mu isanzure ni kimwe mu biteye amatsiko cyane mu gihe cyacu.

Kuva ku bintu biguruka bitazwi neza ibyo aribyo (UFO) bimaze kuboneka mu kirere hano ku isi, ku byitwa ’little green aliens’, kugera ku kuba bishoboka ko hari ubuzima mu bice byo munsi y’ubutaka bwo kuri Mars…Havugwa byinshi.

Nta herezo ku bivugwa ku ishusho nyayo y’ubwo buzima n’uburyo bwaba bwarabayeho aho hantu.

Hari n’amashusho kuri internet agaragaza ko aba ’aliens’ bashobora kuba baragendereye bakanafasha abantu ba cyera, kuko ngo ntaburyo aba-Maya bubatse insengero zabo z’ibitangaza [badafashijwe ’n’abantu’ badasanzwe].

Gusa ibyo byose nta gihamya yabyo. Kandi mu by’ukuri mbaye ndi umwubatsi w’umu-Maya wo mu myaka 250 mbere ya Yezu/Yesu, navuga ko ibyo ari igitutsi kuri twe.

Ahubwo ingingo iteye amatsiko, kandi ifite ibimenyetso kurushaho, ni iya panspermia.

Ko ubuzima buriho ahanyuranye mu isanzure kandi bushobora kuva ahantu hamwe bukajya ahandi.

Nubwo bitaremezwa neza neza, itsinda ry’abahanga muri science ba kaminuza za MIT na Harvard bari kwiga ingingo y’uko hari ubuzima runaka bwaba mu by’ukuri byarageze kuri Mars muri ubwo buryo.

Ibyo birashoboka? Ibi ni ibyo tuzi…
Biratangaje uburyo ubuzima bubasha kumenyera.

Reba uko amoko amwe n’amwe y’utunyabuzima dutoya tutaboneshwa amaso hano ku Isi - nka archaea na bacteria - mu myaka miliyoni yo kwihinduranya (evolution) twabashije kwihinduranyamo utundi kugira ngo tubeho muri ’conditions’ zitandukanye cyane.

Ibyo bisobanuye ko uyu munsi hari utunyabuzima duto cyane dushobora kubaho dutunzwe n’ibyo turya bitandukanye - sulphur, ammonia, ndetse n’icyuma cya manganese, kandi ahari cyangwa hatari umwuka (oxygen).

Tumwe ndetse tubasha kubaho ahari ’conditions’ zikakaye cyane Isi itanga.

Utunyabuzima twitwa Pyrococcus furiosus (akazina koroshye rwose!!) twihanganira amazi ashyushye cyane ava mu nda y’isi yo hasi ku ndiba y’inyanja.

Ayo mazi ashobora kugera ku bushyuhe bwa dogere celcius 100.

Mu gihe utunyabuzima twitwa Psychobacter frigidicola two ku mpera y’isi ya Antarctic two twikundira ibintu bikonje rwose.

Ushobora no kubona utu tunyabuzima tubaho ahagoye cyane tugifite ubuzima ahantu hari acide ishyushye cyangwa mu myonga y’umunyu yo mu butayu bwumagaye.

Ndetse zimwe muri izi microbes zishobora no kuba ahantu nk’aho hombi ubundi hadashoboka.

Deinococcus radiodurans zishobora kuboneka ahantu h’ubushyuhe burengeje zikaboneka no mu butaka bukonje bikabije bwa Antarctic, zikanabaho ahantu hakakaye, ni ikinyabuzima tuzi kihanganira imirasire kurusha ibindi.

Utu tunyabuzima rero tuba ahagoye cyane dushobora no kubasha kuba, ndetse no kuramba, muri ’conditions’ zikomeye cyane ku yindi mibumbe n’andi mezi (ukwezi/moon/lune) igihe cyose igihe kimwe hashobora kuboneka amazi (nubwo yaba ibitonyanga).

Ni gute microbes zishobora kujya ahandi hantu mu isanzure?
Uburyo bworoshye ni ukwitegereza ’systeme solaire’ no kure yayo.

Tersicoccus phoenicis ni ubwoko bwa bacteria bwavumbuwe mu buryo bwo gusukura ikigendajuru cya NASA.

By’impanuka se abantu baba barajyanye bacteria zikava ku isi zikajya k’Ukwezi no kuri Mars?

Ubundi buryo kuri izi mocrobes kuba zava hano zikajya hariya muri ’solar system’ ni ukugenda ku mabuye ava ku yindi mibumbe (meteoroids).

Iyo aya mabuye yihonze ku mubumbe, andi mabuye n’imicanga n’ibindi biratumbagira bikajya mu isanzure, bigakora izindi meteoroids.

Kugeza ubu, meteoroids 313 zo ku mubumbe wa Mars zimaze kuboneka ku Isi, kandi ibuye rya hano ku Isi ryabonetse ku Ukwezi, bityo rero tuzi ko hari urunyurane rw’amabuye hagati y’imibumbe.

Turiya tunyabuzima turokoka gute urugendo mu isanzure?

No mu isanzure, ubukonje no kubura kwa oxygen ntabwo bikanga abo bagenzi bakomeye, kuko na bacteria isanzwe ishobora kwinjira mu gihe cyo gusinzira iyo igeze muri ’conditions’ zikomeye cyane, igakora urukuta rw’umutamenwa n’utwumba twitwa ’spores’ tudakorwaho n’ibishobora kwica tukarinda ADN/DNA yayo.

Ubushyuhe bukabije, ubukonje, acide, gukakara n’imirasire ya Ultra-violet ntibibasha gukora kuri DNA ya bacteria iri mu rugendo iri ku kintu runaka mu isanzure.

Ikindi kibazo gikomeye ni uko mu isanzure haba imirasire imwe ishobora no gushongesha icyuma bityo ishobora gushwanyaguza DNA byoroshye.

Ariko icyo si ikibazo ku tunyabuzima deinococcus kuko dushobora kumara imyaka itandatu turi mu isanzure turi muri bwa buryo bwo gusinzira.

Ikindi kibazo ni igihe. Isanzure ni rigari rwose, bityo kujya aho ariho hose muri ryo bifata igihe kinini cyane.

Gusa mu 2020, abahanga muri science bo mu Buyapani babashije gukangura bacteria yari imaze imyaka miliyoni 100 isinziriye ku ndiba y’inyanja.

Rero birashoboka ko intera nini cyane cyangwa igihe kirekire byafata atari ibibazo kuri utu tunyabuzima dutoya tugenda mu isanzure.

Intambwe ya nyuma ni ukurokoka kwihonda ku mubumbe mushya twagezwaho n’ikibuye kivuye ahandi.

Ariko byagaragaye ko bacteria, aho gupfa, ishobora kumanyuka igacikamo izindi mu gihe cyose habayeho kwihonda bikomeye bishobora kuyimanyura.

Rero birashoboka rwose ko ubuzima butoya cyane (butaboneshwa amaso) bwaba bwaragiye ahantu nko kuri Mars.

Ikindi, abahanga berekana ko ’conditions’ kuri Mars zasaga cyane n’izo ku Isi mu myaka miliyari 3.8 ishize.

Utu tunyabuzima dutoya cyane kandi twihanganira ibikomeye twaba turi mu bice byo munsi by’ubutaka bwa Mars? Niba duhari, ntitwaba twaramenyereye aho hantu? Cyangwa se ubuzima bwo ku Isi bwaba ubundi bwaravuye kuri Mars bukaza kuri uyu mubumbe wacu?

’Little green aliens’ zishobora kuba zitabaho, cyangwa se n’ubuzima bw’ubundi bwenge nk’uko tubyumva, ariko uburyo ubuzima bushobora kuba bwarahererekanyijwe muri ’systeme solaire’ biteye amatsiko cyane.

Mu gihe kandi indebakure (telescope) yiswe James T Webb itangiye ubushakashatsi bwayo bwo kureba ibimenyetso nyabyo by’ubuzima kure cyane ku yindi mibumbe, birashoboka ko tuzabona ko ubuzima buriho kurenza uko tubutekereza?

BBC

Ahmed tawfek

Glimpse I had had of the Martians emerging from their planet, a kind glimpse I had had of the Martians emerging from the cylinder

TANGA IGITEKEREZO

Ibitekerezo