Inkuru Zicukumbuye

Aho ibihe bigana: Bizamera bite igihe Shobuja mu kazi azaba ari Mudasobwa?

Aho ibihe bigana: Bizamera bite igihe Shobuja mu kazi azaba ari Mudasobwa?

Ese hari ubwo mudasobwa yaba ari yo izajya ikubera umuyobozi mu kazi mu mwanya wa ’manager’ wawe? Niba ugisoma iyi nteruro wahise utekereza uti “Mbega byiza!!! Byaba ari uburyohe kurusha uko ‘boss’ wanjye yakomeza kuba umuntu nk’ibisanzwe,” si wowe wenyine watekereza utyo.

Ibyo ari byo byose, porogaramu (software) za mudasobwa yahawe ubwenge bw’ubukorano (artificial intelligence) ishobora kuyobora abakozi no kubagenzura neza ikabashyira ku murongo uko bagomba gukora imirimo kurushaho itangije ibiruhuko byawe.

Ikindi kandi, kuba iyi mudasobwa itajya iguhamagara igutonganya ngo ukoze aka cyangwa kariya nabi kandi wenda nta ko utagize cyangwa se kuba umukoresha w’umuntu (human boss/manager) we hari uko akoresha ikimenyane ku bandi bakozi bagenzi bawe wowe agupyinagaza ubanza byaba ari impinduka nziza.

Mudasobwa ikora akazi nk’ako yitwa AI boss (Artificial Intelligence boss), ni ukuvuga umukoresha wahawe ubwenge bw’ubukorano. Ngaho aho ibihe bitujyana.

Icyakora, ku barebye kenshi filimi za Terminator yakinwe na Arnold Schwarzenegger nk’umukinnyi w’imena, igitekerezo cyo kuba mudasobwa, irobo [robot] zishobora kuzajya ari zo zigenzura abakozi gisa n’aho gitangiyegutera abantu ubwoba ko izi mashini zizambura abantu intebe y’ubutware mu bihe biza.

Ariko kandi, abaterwa ubwoba n’iki gitekerezo birengagiza ko n’ubundi twamaze kumenyera ko tumara igihe kinini tugendera ku mabwiriza kandi twubaha imashini tutanabitekerejeho ureke no kuba twakumva hari impungenge biduteye.

Jeff Schwartz, ukora mu kigo mpuzamahanga cy’ubucuruzi kinatanga inama mu by’icungamutungo (consulting and audit) cyitwa Deloitte kizwi nk’igitanga inama ku hazaza h’akazi n’imirimo ku isi yose, atunga agatoki imashini twese twubaha buri munsi bitanadusabye kubitekerezaho. Aha ariko ni cyane mu mijyi. Mu byaro by’iwacu ubwo bizahagera mu minsi iza.

Jeff Schwartz avuga ko imashini z’ubwonko bukorano zizatuma abantu baba abayobozi beza mu kazi

Agira ati “Amatara ayobora abakoresha umuhanda (traffic light) yahoze ubwayo ari akazi, habagaho umuntu mu mahuriro y’imihanda wabaga ahagaze ayobora imodoka.

Gusa mu buryo bugaragarira buri wese, ubu ibi bikorwa n’imashini inagenda yongera ubwenge uko bukeye n’uko bwije- ubu baragenda baha aya matara y’ibyapa byo mu mihanda ubwenge bw’ubukorano[kugira ngo abashe kujya ashobora guhangana n’ubwinshi n’umuvundo w’abakoresha imihanda (ibinyabiziga n’abantu…].”

Bisa n’aho ubu tuba dushaka kumva amabwiriza y’imashini ahantu hagaragara mu nzira zisobanutse.

Ikintu cyagiye cyiyongera mu myaka ya vuba aha, ariko, ni uko benshi muri twe tumaze kumenyera gutegekwa na za mudasobwa ku kazi. Kandi inzobere zivuga ko ibi biziyongera nta kabuza.

Dufate urugero rwa Uber, ikigo cy’ubucuruzi gitanga servisi z’ikoranabuhanga n’izindi nyinshi harimo n’iyo gutwara abantu nka ‘taxi’. Nta mugabo cyangwa umugore mu biro uha akazi abashoferi.

Bikorwa mu buryo bw’ikoranabuhanga na porogaramu ya mudasobwa yahawe ubwenge bwakozwe.

Abashoferi ba Uber icyo gukora bakibwirwa na mudasobwa

Ubwo se kugira mudasobwa igukoresha ikugenzura mu kazi ni ikintu cyo kugirwaho impungenge? Madamu Shivvy Jervis washinze ikigo gitanga inama muri ‘business’ cyitwa FutureScape 248 dore uko avibona:

“Igikomeye hano dukwiye gukora ni ukurebana inyurabwenge ibi bintu. Mu gihe uzaba ukoreshwa na shobuja w’ubwenge bw’ubukorano, igice cya porogaramu ya mudasobwa gifite ubushobozi bwo gufata ibyemezo, ibyo kuri njye biteye impungenge kandi ntekereza ko byatuma ahazaza haba hateye inkeke.”

“Porogaramu idafite ugutekereza no gushyira mu gaciro, umuntu nyamuntu ukoresha ibyiyumvo bye ashobora kugenzura ibyo iyo porogaramu itekereza ko ari icyemezo nyacyo, si ibintu byiza na mba, ni na cyo kintu giteye ubwoba ahubwo.”

Mu bucuruzi, Amazon, ikigo cy’ubucuruzi bukorerwa kuri murandasi kiza imbere ku isi, yahaye akazi porogaramu zahawe ubwenge zigenzura zikanayobora abakozi bakora mu bubiko (warehouses) bwayo.

Ibi byatumye hari raporo nyinshi z’abakozi bavuze ko bakoreshwa birenze agatunambwene, ibirego Amazon yahakanye igatsemba. Amazon ivuga ko iyo iyi mashini y’inyabwenge bw’ubukorano irabutswe umukozi ukora ntageze ku kigero yitezweho ahita ahabwa ubufasha cyangwa agahugurwa yongererwa ubumenyi, ibintu bikorwa n’abantu.

Porogaramu ifite ubwenge bwakozwe iha runaka umurimo akora, ikamugenzura, mu gihe nk’imirongo rusange ya telefoni (call centre) yo inengwa ko isaba birenze ibikenewe kandi ntikoreshe ukuri.

Icyakora, imwe muri kompanyi zitanga serivisi nk’iyi, CallMiner yabwiye BBC ko kubera ko sisitemu ikoresha imirongo yayo rusange ishobora “gusesengura ibiganiro 100% uko abahamagaye bose babikora,” abagenzuzi b’abantu bashobora gukoresha ayo makuru agatuma baba aba “ ‘managers’ beza kurushaho”.

Abakozi ba Amazon bakora mu bubiko bwa Amazon bayoborwa na za mudasobwa

Aha kandi ngo binyuze muri ubwo buryo, abakozi bashobora kuyoborerwa “gukora akazi neza igihe barengeje amasaha yako maze bigatuma abakiliya babyungukiramo kurushaho .”

Mu gihe ikoreshwa ry’abayobozi ku kazi bafite ubwenge bukorano rigenda ryiyongera, ikibazo gikomeye gishobora kuba niba bagira ijambo rya nyuma ku mukozi wo mu kigo runaka uzaherwaho hagabanywa abakozi igihe habayeho ihungabana ry’ubukungu risaba kubagabanya [nk’ibi byabaye kubera Covid-19] nkuko Madamu Jervis abivuga.

Jervis avuga ko “Umuntu ashobora kugirira impuhwe akanabera umubyeyi urera wenyine abana babiri bitewe n’umushahara we wa buri kwezi. Cyangwa akavuga ko undi muntu afite abantu benshi baziranye, ko naramuka asezerewe atazabura imigozi imuhambira ngo abure aho apfunda imitwe.”

Porogaramu y’inyabwenge bukorano nubwo yabazwa bene ibi bibazo, nta cyizere ko yakumva neza ibisubizo muri ubwo buryo.

Prof. Sandra Wachter , umushakashatsi mukuru ku bwenge bukorano muri Kaminuza ya Oxford, avuga ko iyo abantu batekereje kugira mudasobwa nka shebuja, “bahita bibeshya bashushanya mu mitwe yabo irobo ibahagaze hejuru.”

Prof Wachter avuga ko za algorithms zo muri mudasobwa zitayibashisha gufata umwanzuro y’ubushishozi nk’abantu
“Nyamara ahubwo ni ibyerekeye imirimo ya kiyobozi ikwerekeyeho iba yamaze gutangira gukorwa na ‘algorithms’ za mudasobwa.” Algorithms na zo ni uruherekane cyangwa urutonde rw’amabwiriza akurikizwa nta gihindtse mu kubara cyangwa gukemura amahurizo y’imibare akenshi bikozwe na mudasobwa.

Ati “Urugero, hashobora kuba hari porogaramu za mudasobwa zikora zigenzura uko ukora- umubare wa telefoni witaba cyangwa uhamagara, ikamenya neza ururimi rwawe igihe uhamagara cyangwa uhamagawe, ‘emails’ wohereza, imbuga usura n’inshuro ufata ibiruhuko.

“Ibi bishobora kugena umushara uzahembwa cyangwa niba uzazamurwa mu ntera. Amakenga akomeye mfite ni uko izi algorithms zikoreshwa zaba zikoreshwa mu kuvuga ibizaba nyamara na zo bitazishobokera. Urugero, kumenya uko umukozi mwiza aba asa, ukwiye kuzamurwa mu ntera ni ibintu biterwa n’uko runaka abona ibintu, si bose babibona kimwe muri rusange.”

"Mu bihe bizaza, ibi ni ibintu abategetsi muri za guverinoma bashobora kuzicara ngo babishingeho amategeko gusa nta kabuza bizaba ingorabahizi ukurikije igisa n’inkingi y’igihu kibuditse hagati y’ifatabyemezo ry’abakoresha bafite ubwenge bukorano n’iry’ab’abantu.

Shivvy Jervis na we avuga ko ibyemezo byafatwa n’abakoresha bahawe ubwenge bukorano bitakwizerwa

Prof. Chamorro-Premuzic avuga ko nubwo aba bakoresha bahawe ubwenge nk’ubw’abantu bateye benshi inkeke bakaba banahangayitse ndetse amajwi abamagana akaba ari uruhuri, ngo ni ngombwa kwibuka uko abakoresha benshi ari ba ‘managers’ bameze nk’abaterabwoba.

Ati “Birakomeye cyane ko imashini yakora igatanga umusaruro kurusha abakoresha basanzwe ari inyamibwa mu bandi…gusa si ibintu bigoye cyane kuba imashini yahawe ubwenge bukorano yaba mugenzi w’umukoresha mubi cyane.”

Prof Watcher yongeraho ko abakoresha b’abantu (human bosses) “batagakwiye kubonwa nk’abafite igiciro gihanitse cya zahabu.”

Bwana Schwartz avuga ko yizeye ko abakoresha bahawe ubwenge bw’ubukorano (AI ‘Artificial Intelligence’ Bosses) bashobora kuba bazafasha bagenzi babo b’abantu kongera umusaruro mu kazi.

Impamvu atanga ni uko ngo aba bakoresha ari bo mudasobwa bazajya bakora cyane cyane imirimo mu busanzwe abantu batishimira gukora kuko ‘ibajena’ nko gukusanyiriza hamwe, gushyira ku murongo uko abakozi bakora, ibyo bakora n’uko bakurikirana mu masaha y’akazi, kwemeza uturimo tworoheje, kugenzura uko runaka na nyirarunaka bakora akazi kabo n’umusaruro batanga n’indi nk’iyo bamwe babona ko ibatera ‘stress’.

Ati “Ibi bizafasha aba ‘boss’ ‘b’abahomo sapiens’, ari bo twe abantu kwibanda ku kuba abayobozi beza b’amatsinda birutaho.”

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