Imyidagaduro

Kuki Ingimbi n’Abangavu B’Ubu Batari Uko Bahoze Kera?

Umuntu aravuka akaba umwana hanyuma agakura akaba umuntu mukuru hagati aho habaho ikindi cyiciro cy’abantu babaho mu gushayisha, mu buzima butari ku murongo na gato kandi bahora mu kajagari, akavuyo na rwaserera mu mitwe yabo.

Reka twifashishije inkuru icukumbuye ya BBC, tukugezeho uko twasobanuye
ubugimbi n’ubwangavu (adolescence) mu mateka uko imyaka yashize indi igataha- noneho tunakubwire impamvu ubu haje ikindi cyiciro gishya cyiyongera ku byo tumaze kuvuga.

Uzi akaga gaterwa n’abakiri bato n’urubyiruko rw’iyi minsi? Abajeunes, abaniga, abakoboyi, abajama batekereza ko isi ari iyabo kandi ko bazi byinshi kuturusha ndetse twese baturuta. Ni iki waza ubabwira se? Icyakora ubanza batibeshya, ab’ubu bakiri bato bazi ubwenge cyane, bafite imbaraga, barakorera ku muvuduko ariko ubanza ukabije.

Niba uri mukuru, ushobora kuba ujya wumva cyangwa ukabona nk’abakiri bato b’ino aha bahamagarana bati ‘Salama icyuki, vipi musirikare, uraho se umusa...? Niga yanjye ntukabe idage, man. Niba wari ukuze wenda nka mbere ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, hari ubwo aya magambo utayumva neza cyangwa ukaba uyumvise vuba, gusa nturi wenyine. Ayo kimwe n’andi menshi ni amazina urubyiruko rw’ubu bitana.

Ni amagambo yavuye ava mu zindi ndimi zigezweho bitewe n’aho ibihe bigeze ariko andi akava ku bahanzi n’ibyamamare, urugero nka Ndayishimiye Malick Bertrand ‘BullDogg’ wazanye ‘icyuki’ ashaka kuvuga umukobwa mwiza, ubu rikaba risa n’aho ryitirirwa abakobwa bose bakiri bato. Ni rumwe mu ngero nyinshi.

Mu mateka, amagambo n’ibyiciro dukoresha tuvuga abakiri bato yagiye ahinduka, bitewe n’impinduka mu muco, imirimo, amashuri na siyansi. Ni gute ibi bintu abo twitaga ingimbi ‘adolescents’ ubu bitwa, urugero “teenager’’? None ko impinduka zihoraho kandi zigakora ku byiciro byose by’imibereho hakabaho ubuvumbuzi bushya iteka, ni gute noneho ibyiciro by’abato bishobora guhinduka na none ejo hazaza?

Abato kera bari abanyamahane, abanyarugomo kandi batubaha

Kimwe mu bisa n’impinduka ubuvumbuzi bukomeye bwabaye ku muco rusange w’isi mu kinyejana giheruka ni icyitwa ‘teenager’. Si ijambo ry’Ikinyarwanda ariko isi yabaye umudugudu, urabizi. Birakomeye kwiyumvisha ko twigeze kubaho imyaka y’ubugimbi twabayemo itandukanye n’iy’uko ubw’ubu [ubugimbi] bumeze, nyamara uramutse usubiye inyuma mu bihe ukajya mu binyejana bike bishize, hari abantu basanga uko batekereza umusore n’inkumi b’ubu bo mu cyiciro cy’abateens, ari nk’igitekerezo cy’ibivejuru (alien).

Tugarutse mu myaka ya za 1500, ni urugero, aba –adolescents, bo mu burengerazuba bw’isi (ni ukuvuga u Burayi bw’ubu na Amerika) babaga ari abakozi bari ku murimo, ubasanga bafite akazi mu mirimo y’abakuru kandi baratangiye iyo mirimo kuva nibura ku myaka nk’irindwi y’amavuko Hugh Cunningham, umwanditsi ku mateka y’ubwana wo muri Kaminuza ya Kent abisobanura.

Mu duce tw’ibyaro, bishoboka ko imirimo nk’iyi yabaga ari iy’ubuhinzi aho aba bana bafashaga ingo n’imiryango yabo kwinjiza no kongera imitungo yabo binyuze mu buhinzi, gusa aho iterambere ry’inganda ryadukiye bugubugu mu binyejana bya 18 na 19, benshi mu bari mu cyiciro cy’ubugimbi bari mu nsi y’imyaka 20 bahindutse abakozi bo mu nganda bakorana na bagenzi babo bakuze.

Mu myaka iheruka yo muri za 1800, nk’uko Cunningham abyandika, abana muri Amerika (US) binjizaga hafi 1/3 cy’ibyo ingo zabo zinjizaga igihe nka se yabaga ari mu myaka ye iri muri za 50 y’amavuko. Nta shuri nk’iry’ubu ryariho, kandi abatunze kurusha abandi ni bo bakomangaga ku rugi rwa “banki ya mama na papa” bakabasha kugaburira imiryango no kuwunonera aho kuryama.

Icyakora ubwo ibipimo by’imibereho y’isi itera imbere ndetse na za politiki z’uburezi zatangiraga guhinduka mu ntango z’ikinyejana cya 20, abakiri bato batangiye kujya baba mu nsi y’amababa y’ababyeyi babo cyangwa abandi babitagaho igihe kirekire kurusha hambere, bafashwa na bo mu buryo bw’ubukungu ndetse no mu marangamutima. Gusa na none icyo gihe, ntabwo ubuvumbuzi ku bumenyi bw’icyo twita ingimbi cyangwa umwangavu w’ubu (teenager) ntibwari guhita bubaho ako kanya.


Umwanya n’ijambo ry’abakiri bato muri sosiyeti byarahindutse cyane, bivuye ku mpinduka mu muco, umurimo, uburezi na siyansi

Mbere y’Intambara ya Kabiri y’Isi, ijambo teenager (teen-ager) ryari ryarakoreshejwe gake gashoboka, gusa mu myaka ya za 1940 na za 1950, ni bwo ryatangiye kuba ijambo risanzwe kurusha uko byahoze. Muri iki gihe, hari imbaraga nyinshi zahuriye hamwe ngo ibi bibe.

Mu bihugu bikize, byari ibintu bisanzwe cyane ko umuntu ukiri muto aguma mu ishuri mu bihe by’imyaka ye iri mu nsi ya 20. Mu myaka ya za 1940, hatanzwe itegeko ko umuntu wese yiga nibura kugeza afite imyaka 15. Muri US ho ibirori bisoza ayisumbuye byiyongereyeho kuva ku 10% mu ntango z’ikinyejana zigera kuri 60% rwagati muri za 1950.

Nyuma y’Intabara ya Kabiri, abanditsi b’amateka bavuga na none ko uko sosiyeti yabonaga uburenganzira bw’abakiri bato byahindutse mu bihugu byinshi byo mu Burengerazuba: icyiyumvo cy’uko abakiri bato bagiraga inshingano yo kugira icyo bakorera ababyeyi babo igihe batangiye gucika intege ndetse n’ibyifuzo byabo ubwabo n’indangagaciro byatangiye kumvwa kurusha uko byahoze mbere.

Uribaza uruganda rw’ubuzima n’icyiciro kimwe cya sosiyeti cyumvaga ibi byifuzo kurusha ibindi? Ubucuruzi. Mu myaka ya za 1950, ibigo by’ubucuruzi byatahuye neza ko ingimbi na bo bashobora abavuga rikijyana influencers. Aba bashoboraga gushyiraho cyangwa guhanga ibintu bigenderwaho bikamamara ndetse no gusakaza imideri, bityo kandi yakamamazwa ikabyara inyungu nyinshi.

Nk’uko umwanditsi w’ikinyamakuru The New Yorker yabyanditse mu 1958: “Ku kigero runaka, isoko ry’ingimbi (teenage market), mu by’ukuri, igitekerezo cy’ingimbi- cyaremwe n’abashabitsi bakibyaza umusaruro.”

Muri icyo gihe, ibintu byose byari ukungukira mu kwigumura bugimbi, hot-rods ndetse na rock n’ roll. Ubu ikigezweho ni TikTok, Instagram, WhatsApp, Twitter na Facebook na...[indaya z’abasore se nzivuge? Oya!!! Sinkazivumbe, ndi Umusinga!] .

Icyakora icyo nshaka kuvuga ni uko urubyiruko ruzwi nk’abantu ba bizengarame birirwa muri nta myaka ijana, bahanga kandi bakamamaza ibigezweho kandi ukaba ubasanga bavuga rikijyana nka influencers byari- kandi n’ubu bikiri- ikintu kiva ku bucuruzi bushingiye ku ifaranga bwasakaye mu Rwanda mu myaka ya za 1950 ndetse itangazamakuru n’imbuga nkoranyambaga zitangarizwaho ishusho y’uko ubuzima bw’ab’ubu bumeze.

Umuziki w’ingimbi n’abangavu, urubyiruko, ibishubaziko n’ingaramakirambi zirirwa muri nta gikwe wuzuyemo ibishegu [ubundi ni amagambo y’urukuzasoni avugwa n’imandwa], imyambarire igezweho harimo n’iyo bambara basa n’abambaye ubusa ndetse n’indimi zirimo Ikinyarwanda cy’Imihanda byugarije sosiyeti,kandi intandaro yabyo nta yindi usibye inganda zashingiwe kubyungukiramo akayabo ba nyirazo batitaye haba ku bo babyaye cyangwa batabyaye, n’ubundi ngo umwana w’undi abishya inkonda.

Mu myaka ya za 1950s, ingimbi zavumbutse nk’abahangadushya mu mideri, umuziki, filimi n’imbyino.I Rwanda igitandukanye ni imyaka misa byabereyemo n’ubu ni ko bireze.

Mu myaka ya za 1950, ushobora kubona ibimenyetso bihamya uko abakomeye ku muco babonaga ingimbi (teenagers) nk’aba adolescents byari ibintu bitangiye kumenyekana cyane, hakaba kandi kwinubira ibigeragezo byavaga mu kurera abana bagipfundura utubere basatira ubwangavu n’ubugimbi bazwi nk’abari mu cyiciro cy’imyaka ya ‘puberty’.

Urugero, umugore witwa Mrs G yandikiye Mary Brown, inyandiko yashyikirije ikinyamakuru gisohoka buri munsi mu Bwongereza, The Mirror, yinubira kandi agaragaza agahinda yaterwaga n’umuhungu we yavuze ko: “Atubaha abakuru, kandi agira umyamujinya urandura inzozi. Ni gute umwana yahinduka atya koko, bakobwa bakowe?” Akomeza agira ati “Arakazwa na buri kibazo umubajije, igisubizo agusubizanya ikinyabupfura ni yego cyangwa oya, cyangwa ikibi cyane akandebana indoor y’uburakari bimbwira neza ngo ndebe ibindeba.”

Byose ibi bisobanura ko umu-jeune uko tubabona ubu nta tandukaniro ry’uko yadutse mu Kinyejana cya 20. Ikibazo twibaza noneho, ese uko umuco w’ubu ubona urubyiruko hazazamo impinduka na none ejo hazaza?

“Bitandukanye no mu myaka 20 ishize, abana bafite hagati y’imyaka 17 na 18 muri Amerika usanga abake ari bo nibura basogongeye ku nzoga isindisha, yarasambanye, cyangwa yaramaze kubona uruhushya rwo gutwara ibinyabiziga,” ni Jean Twenge uvuga ibi. [Gusa ubanza mu Rwanda ahubwo ari ikinyuranyo.]

Mu myaka isaga icumi cyangwa makumyabiri iheruka, habayeho impinduka zitangaje cyane mu biranga urubyiruko rubarirwa mu nsi y’imyaka 20. Umuhanga muri siyansi y’ubuzima bwo mu mutwe Jean Twenge wo muri Kaminuza ya San Diego State University yandika ko ingimbi n’abangavu (teens) bagenda bakura noneho ku muvuduko muto mu bipimo byinshi ubagereranije na bagenzi babo mu kunyejana cya 20.

Umusore w’imyaka 17-18 muri US, ni urugero, ni gake uzamusanga yarasogongeye ku nzoga, yarasambanye cyangwa afite uruhushya rwo gutwara, ugereranije na bagenzi be bo muri icyo kigero mu myaka 20 ishize. Uw’imyaka 13-14 we amahirwe y’uko yaba afite akazi cyangwa yarigeze gusohokana n’umukunzi ni make cyane.

Hagati aho ariko, ibipimo bindi by’uko umuntu akuze ariko ari bwo acyitwa mukuru (early adulthood), nko gutwita inda ku bangavu (teenage pregnancy) byaragabanutse cyane ku kigero kitigeze kibaho muri Amerika no mu Burayi. Mu Rwanda ho biriyongera ku muvuduko ukabije ahubwo.

Twenge we atunga urutoki impamvu zituma imkurire y’urubyiruko noneho igenda gake. Hari ugushidikanya guke cyane ko ikoranabuhanga na murandasi byabigizemo uruhare cyane, bivuga ko ubu abagize urungano usanga bahurira kandi bakaganirira kuri interineti no mu rugo, bigabanya ibyago byo gukora imibonano mpuzabitsina kuri iyi myaka, gukora igisa n’igerageza rya kigimbi, n’ibindi byago bigabanuka.

Ni mu gihe mu Rwanda izo mbuga zabaye ahubwo isoko ryamamarizwaho iby’ubusambanyi ku buryo ahubwo abashidikanya ko ingaruka zabwo ziyongera zigirwamo uruhare n’izo mbuga ari bo bake.

Ku bw’iyi mpamvu, Twenge yita bene uru rubyiruko abagize igisekuru cya ‘iGen’ ndetse yanditse ku miterere n’imyitwarire ibaranga.

Gusa ahishura ko iyi myitwarire n’imico yarimo itangira kubaho na mbere yumuco wa murandasi wo mu Kinyejana cya 21, bivuga ko interineti itabyitirirwa ijana ku ijana.
Icyo avuga mu gitabo cye ni uko ingimbi n’abangavu bo mu nsi y’imyaka 20 bitwara bitandukanye bitewe n’uko imiterere y’ibibakikije bitaborohera n’ubuzima bugoye babamo bituma biyumva, igitekerezo abahanga mu bumenyamuntu bise “life history theory’’

Mu bihe bikomeye kandi bigoye byo mu mateka, ingimbi n’abangavu bahatwaga gufata ingamba z’ubuzima bwihuse “fast life strategy’’, gukura byihuse, kubyara hakiri kare no kwibanda ku byifuzo by’ibanze bya muntu birimo, birumvikana, kurya, kuryama no kwambara…

Ubu rero ubuzima mu Burengerazuba bw’isi buroroshye ugereranije na mbere, ndetse ingo ziratunze kurusha kera- mu mibare yo ku kigero rusange- bituma byashobokera uru rubyiruko gufata ingamba z’ubuzima bugenda gake “slow life strategy", bitinza urugendo ruvana uru rubyiruko mu cyiciro cy’ubugimbi rujya mu cy’abakuze bafite imico y’abakuru koko.

“Mu bihe n’uduce ndetse n’ibihugu by’aho abantu babaho bakaramba, serivisi z’ubuzima n’ubuvuzi ziba ari nziza kurushaho, kandi amashuri biratinda kuyarangiza, abantu bagahitamo kubyara bake bashoboye kurera neza babaha ibyo bakenera by’ibanze,” ni Twenge ubisobanura atya. No mu Rwanda ubu ni ko bijya kumera.

Imico yose yagiye ihindukira iruhande rw’urugendo ruva ibwana rujya ibukuru nk’ijoro ry’ibirori no gusohoka

Birashoboka ko habayeho cyane ukwiyongera no gushimangira uburyo bwo kwirinda mu rubyiruko, nkuko Twenge abivuga, haba ku mibiri yabo ndetse no mu marangamutima, bitera urubyiruko n’ababyaye cyangwa ababarera imbaraga zo kubarinda no kwirinda ibibi biza mu bukuru mu gihe kirekire.

None se ni iki ibi bizaba bisobanuye ku bitekerezo dufite ku rubyiruko ibi nibikomeza bitya? Bishoboka ko igitekerezo cy’uko urubyiruko ruzwi nk’abantu bivumbuye ku miterere y’imibereho rusange nta mpamvu ifatika rufite kigenda gisa n’ikitakigezweho.

Mu gihe ingimbi nyinshi mu myaka ya za 1950 na za 1960 zatwaraga imodoka zabo bwite, zikururira ibyago ubwazo, kandi usanga bamwe baratangiye kwishora mu nzoga n’ibiyobyabwenge, bagenzi babo mu kigero nk’icyo usanga ubu ahubwo babaho mu buzima busukuye kandi ikintu cyo kwirinda bagishyize ku mutima. Niba hari imyitwarire yo gushaka ubwigenge biciye mu nzira mbi zitarimo ubwenge, biza nyuma.

Ku bipimo byinshi, ubu ubugimbi n’ubwangavu (adolescence) burakomeza kugeza mu myaka 24 na 25.

Mu myaka ya vuba aha, siyansi yerekanye ko ubugimbi (adolescence) butarangiririra aho imyaka y’ubugimbi yo mu nsi ya makumyabiri (teenage) ishirira.

Ku myaka 20 y’amavuko, mu busanzwe umusore cyangwa inkumi aba afatwa nk’umuntu mukuru: umubiri we uba ukuze byuzuye, bashobora gutora, kurongora cyangwa kurongorwa bakabyara, kandi benshi b’iyi myaka baba barageze ku isoko ry’umurimo. Nyamara ibimenyetso bivuga ko, ufatiye ku bipimo byinshi, ubugimbi (adolescence) bukomeza kugeza ku myaka 24 na 25.

Ku murongo wa nyuma w’abafite imyaka y’abafite yo munsi ya 20 (teens), icyiciro gisatira ubugimbi (cy’ipfunduratubere) kizwi nka puberty bishoboka ko kiba cyarararangiye ariko ukwiyongera no gukura (maturation) k’ubwonko biba mu by’ukuri biiba bikiri kure cyane y’aho wavuga ko bukuze byuzuye. Amashusho yafashwe ku bwonko yerekana ko igisa n’igikoma cyera kibubamo (white matter), urugero, gikomeza kwiyongera kugeza mu myaka yo hagati muri za 20, ari na ko kandi igisa n’uruhu rw’inyuma ruba rucyiyegeranya rwiyongera (rise in cortical complexity).

Bamwe mu bashakashatsi na none ubu babona iyi myaka nk’icyiciro cy’ingenzi cy’iterambere ry’imibanire ya rubanda (social development stage), aho abato baba bacyiga ukwiyumvanamo k’umugabo n’umugore (intimacy), ubucuti, umuryango, kuvuga akari ku mutima no kwigaragaza, n’ubumenyi kuri sosiyeti na politiki kandi bakaba bakeneye ubufasha ubufasha n’uburinzi bwisumbuyeho kurusha ubwo bahabwa na sosiyeti.

Ese ibi bivuga ko izi ngimbi zisumbuyeho mu myaka zagakwiye gufatwa nk’icyiciro cy’abaturage cyihariye kigahabwa agaciro kihariye kurushaho? Dukwiye kubemerera gutinza gato urugendo rwabo rubinjiza mu isi y’abakuze byuzuye y’ubuzima n’umurimo? Bishobora gusa n’aho ari ukwimakaza ubutesi kuri bamwe, gusa na none, abakurambere bacu bashobora kuba baravugaga ibisa n’ibi ku buryo dufata abasore n’inkumi.

Mu bihe bikomeye mu mateka, byasabaga abasore n’inkumi vuba bakifata nk’abakuze mbere. Iyo ubuzima bworoshye kurushaho, basa n’aho biha igihe cyo kwitinza

Ibimenyetso by’iyi mpinduka y’umuco bisa n’aho byatangiye kubaho. Icyitwa “boomerang’’ ni igisobanurwa nk’izamuka ry’imibare y’ingimbi zikiri nto zisubira iyi minsi mu byari kubana n’ababyeyi bazo nyuma yo gusoza amashuri makuru cyangwa kuko badashobora kwiyubakira cyangwa ngo bikodeshereze (uretse n’aba basubira iwabo ariko, hari n’abatahava ahubwo kugeza bubatse izabo). No mu Rwanda hari abasore n’inkumi nzi baminuje bafite imyaka ikabakaba 30 bakibana n’ababyeyi babo.

Mu Bwongereza ingimbi n’abangavu b’ingaragu bakabakaba miliyoni n’igice ubu bibanira n’ababyaye cyangwa ababareze, imibare ihwanye na 1/3 cy’uko yanganaga mu kinyacumi cy’imyaka ishize, nk’uko ubushakashatsi bwo mu 2020 bwayobowe na Katherine Hill wo muri Kaminuza ya Loughborough bwabyerekanye. Icyuho kinini cy’ubukire kiri hagati y’abakuze n’abakiri bato nta kindi cyakoze uretse kongera iyi mibare.

Birashoboka ko impinduka zugarije umuco zazanywe no kuba abantu basigaye barama zizatangira vuba aha na zo kubigiramo uruhare. Uko ababyeyi bakora igihe kirekire, bashobora kuba bari mu myanya ibabashisha ibaha ubushobozi bwo gukomeza gufasha no kubeshaho abana, bitandukanye n’igihe bari bari mu kiruhuko cy’izabukuru batagikora.

Gusa si ibyo gusa si ibyo gusa, Lynda Gratton na Andrew J Scott bo muri London Business School bateganya ko ukurama kwiyongera vuba aha kuzatuma abantu babona igisanzwe kizwi nka ‘three stage’’ aho ubuzima bufatwa nk’ubw’ibyiciro bitatu, ishuri, umurimo, n’ikiruhuko cy’izabukuru nk’ikintu kitakijyanye n’igihe.
Banavuga mu gitabo cyabo The 100-Year Life “Ubuzima bw’Imyaka 100’’ ko ibi bishobora kuzana by’umwihariko impinduka zikomeye ku byo umuco n’imibereho bisanzwe byitega ku bakiri bato bakiri mu myaka yabo ibanza ya za 20.

Wibuke imvugo twatangiriyeho yogeye mu rubyiruko rw’ino ko ‘nta myaka ijana’ nubwo umusaza Ezra Mpyisi aherutse kuyizihiza agisetsa kandi akigisha rubanda.

“Itandukaniro rimwe dukwiye gutekereza ni ukwibaza cyangwa kwitega ko mu myaka yacu ya za 20 niba dusabwa cyagwa twakwitegwaho kuba twavuye mu ishuri duhita tujya mu kazi. Mu buzima duteganya kugeza ku myaka 100, dukwiye ahubwo gufata igihe cyo mu myaka yacu ya za 20, tukakigenera icyiciro gishya ari cyo kwimenya neza no kumenya isi tuvumbura ibyayo [exploration],” ni ko Gratton na Scott banditse
“Ibyemezo ufata hakiri kare mu buzima bigira ingaruka cyangwa inyungu ku buzima bwawe bwose usigaje….bityo byaba ari ikibazo kuri twe kwitega ko abantu basatira imyaka 20 cyangwa abakiyuzuza bafata imyanzuro nk’uw’icyerekezo bashaka ko ubuzima bwabo bwafata. Ahubwo nyamara bakagize igihe cyo gushakashaka no kuvumbura bakamenya isi noneho bakabona kugerageza inzira zitandukanye.”

Igiteye amatsiko ni iki gihe n’icyiciro cy’ubuzima bwa nyuma y’imyaka iri mu nsi ya makumyabiri [post-teen], nta zina kigira rigisobanura nibura mu Cyongereza. Abarizi mu Kinyarwanda batubwira? Gusa cyagahawe izina. Hari abashakashatsi bita igihe cy’imyaka ya mbere ya 25 nka ‘prolonged adolescence’’, ubwo ahari ni ubugimbi bushyize kera, gusa umwanditsi w’iyi nkuru ya BBC avuga ko cyakiswe ‘adolthood’- kiri hagati y’ubugimbi n’ubukuru.

Na none niba iki gitekerezo cyanga kumvikana, abahanga mu ndimi n’umuco bagishakire izina ryiza ryaruta iryo ariko ubanza mu Kinyarwanda n’ubundi ari ingaramakirambi cyangwa igishubaziko n’andi nk’ayo nubwo kuri bamwe yakumvikana nk’ayandagaza abayitwa, gusa kuko iteka mu mateka, urubyiruko rutabura udushya ubwo ejo cyangwa ejobundi tuzabona izina ryiza rikwiye urubyiruko rw’ubu ruri hagati y’imyaka 20 kugeza bashatse.

Iradukunda Fidele Samson

Ahmed tawfek

Glimpse I had had of the Martians emerging from their planet, a kind glimpse I had had of the Martians emerging from the cylinder

TANGA IGITEKEREZO

Ibitekerezo