Ikoranabuhanga

Impamvu ibihugu byo muri Africa biri kugura Drone za Turkey

 Impamvu ibihugu byo muri Africa biri kugura Drone za Turkey

Ibihugu bimwe byo muri Afurika bikomeje kugura indege nto zitabamo umupilote (drones) zo muri Turukiya zo kurwanya imitwe yitwaje intwaro, nyuma yuko zigaragaje umusaruro mu ntambara zitandukanye ku isi, nkuko byandikwa n’umusesenguzi Paul Melly.

Ubwo bwa mbere Ukraine yatangiraga urugamba rwo gutsinsura igitero cy’Uburusiya, na mbere cyane yuko imbunda za rutura n’izirasa ibisasu bya rokete z’uburengerazuba (Uburayi n’Amerika) zitangira kuyigeraho, hari hari intwaro y’ubwoko bumwe leta ya Ukraine yashoboye kuba ibaye yifashishije - drone ya Bayraktar TB2.

Iyi ntwaro ikorerwa muri Turukiya yari yaramaze kugaragaza ko ari ingirakamaro mu gufasha Azerbaijan gutsinda abasirikare barwanisha ibifaru ba Armenia no kwisubiza ubutaka bunini mu ntambara yo mu karere ka Nagorno-Karabakh yo mu mwaka wa 2020.

Ariko abakunda ubushobozi bw’iyi drone ntibagarukira gusa mu Burayi bw’uburasirazuba (aho Ukraine iherereye) no mu karere ka Caucase (ahari Nagorno-Karabakh).

Mu byumweru bya vuba aha bishize, umuzigo urimo drones za Bayraktar TB2 wagejejwe mu gihugu cya Togo cyo muri Afurika y’uburengerazuba, kirimo kugorwa no guhashya kwinjirirwa (gucengerwa) n’abarwanyi biyitirira idini ya Islam berekeza mu majyepfo bavuye muri Burkina Faso.

Ni mu gihe mu kwezi kwa gatanu, Niger yakiriye drones zigera kuri esheshatu - z’ubu bwoko bwa drones zikora imirimo itandukanye kandi zigurika (zihendutse) - zo gukoresha mu bikorwa byayo bya gisirikare byo kurwanya imitwe y’intagondwa mu karere ka Sahel kari mu majyepfo y’ubutayu (ubugaragwa mu Kirundi) bwa Sahara, no mu nkengero z’ikiyaga cya Tchad.

Ibindi bihugu byo muri Afurika byaguze izi drones birimo nka Ethiopia, Maroc na Tunisia, mu gihe Angola na yo yagaragaje ko izishaka.

Ariko uwa mbere kuri uyu mugabane ushobora kuba yarakoresheje izi ntwaro zikora nka maneko zikanagaba ibitero, ashobora kuba ari leta yemewe n’umuryango w’abibumbye yo muri Libya - aho zatahuwe mu mwaka wa 2019.

Zishobora kuba ari zo zafashije abasirikare bayo i Tripoli gusubiza inyuma inyeshyamba zo mu burasirazuba.

Ku baguzi bo muri Afurika, cyane cyane ibihugu bicyennye cyane, izi drones zitanga amahirwe yo kubaka ingufu zo mu kirere bidasabye ikiguzi kinini cyane mu bikoresho, n’imyaka yo gukora imyitozo yo ku rwego rwo hejuru icyenerwa mu kubaka igisirikare gisanzwe kirwanira mu kirere, gicyenera indege z’intambara zirimo abapilote.

Iki ni ikintu cy’umwihariko kireshya (gikurura) za leta nka Niger na Togo.

Zihanganye n’ingorane y’urusobe yo guhashya imitwe ifite umurava cyane kandi ikora yimuka y’intagondwa ziyitirira Islam, ishinga ibirindiro mu bihuru ikanagenda yihuse ku butaka buriho ibihuru n’ibiti bigufi bwo mu karere ka Sahel, zigenda kuri moto, zigiye gutega imitego no kugaba ibitero bitunguranye ku bigo byitaruye bya gisirikare n’iby’abajandarume (gendarmes), ku mipaka no ku baturage b’abasivile.

Igisirikare cya Niger kimaze imyaka gihanganye n’iki kibazo, kirwana n’intagondwa mu karere kariho imipaka itatu, aho iki gihugu gihurira na Burkina Faso na Mali, hari mu ntera y’urugendo rw’imodoka rw’amasaha macye uvuye mu murwa mukuru Niamey.

Abasirikare ba leta ya Niger bari no mu gikorwa kigoye cyo kurinda akarere k’amajyepfo ashyira uburasirazuba, bakarinda ibitero by’umutwe wa Boko Haram n’ishami ryo muri Afurika y’uburengerazuba ry’umutwe wiyita leta ya kisilamu, rizwi nka ’Islamic State West Africa Province’ (ISWAP).

Ariko kuri Togo, uku kuri kutaziguye kw’inkeke y’intagondwa ziyitirira Islam, urebye ni ikintu gishya kuri yo kandi kiyihangayikishije cyane.

Mu gice kinini cy’iyi myaka 10 ishize, ibikorwa by’imitwe y’intagondwa byagarukiraga gusa ku gace ka Sahel ko hagati na hagati - Mali, Burkina Faso na Niger - na cyane cyane mu duce muri rusange twitaruye imipaka y’ibyo bihugu, bihana imbibi n’ibihugu bikora ku nkombe y’inyanja, nka Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Togo na Bénin.

Ariko mu gihe cya vuba aha gishize, iyi shusho yatangiye guhinduka, mu gihe imitwe yitwaje intwaro yongeraga aho igera mu bikorwa byayo, ikagera mu gice kinini cya Burkina Faso, no mu duce tw’icyaro two ku mupaka ihana n’ibyo bihugu bine.

Kugeza mu mpera y’umwaka wa 2019, abashinzwe umutekano bari barimo gutahura ibimenyetso byo kwinjirirwa n’intagondwa mu majyaruguru ya Togo.

Bitangira, abarwanyi babaga bihishe gusa baruhuka banagarura imbaraga, ariko leta yo mu murwa mukuru Lomé, cyo kimwe na za leta ngenzi zayo zo mu bihugu bikora ku nyanja byo muri Afurika y’uburengerazuba, yari yamaze gutangira guhangayika ko iyi nkeke ishobora kwiyongera.

Igihugu bihana imbibi cya Côte d’Ivoire, mu 2016 cyari cyaribasiwe n’igitero cy’intagondwa ziyitirira Islam, ku mwaro w’inyanja wo kuruhukiraho wa Grand-Bassam.

Icyo gitero cyiciwemo abantu 19, nuko mu mwaka wa 2020 habaho ibitero no gukozanyaho n’abashinzwe umutekano mu majyaruguru ashyira uburasirazuba.

N’uyobora abakerarugendo yarapfuye ubwo intagondwa zashimutaga abakerarugendo babiri b’Abafaransa muri parike y’igihugu ya Pendjari muri Bénin.

Abasirikare babiri b’Ubufaransa nyuma biciwe mu kurasana, ubwo abo bakerarugendo batabarwaga hakurya y’umupaka muri Burkina Faso.

Igitero cya mbere kuri Togo yo ubwayo, i Sanloanga, cyabaye mu kwezi kwa cumi na kumwe mu 2021.

Na mbere yuko izuba rirasa ku itariki ya 11 y’ukwezi kwa gatanu muri uyu mwaka, intagondwa zibarirwa muri za mirongo zateye ikigo cya gisirikare cya Kpék-pakandi, hafi ya Burkina Faso, zica abasirikare 8 naho abandi 13 barakomereka.

Abasirikare birwanyeho, na bo bica zimwe muri izo ntagondwa.

Mu kwezi kwakurikiyeho, leta yatangaje ibihe bidasanzwe (nk’ibyo mu ntambara) i Savanes, akarere ko mu majyaruguru cyane ka Togo.

Ariko ibyo ntibyahagije mu guca intege intagondwa ziyitirira Islam ubu zikorera mu karere k’umupaka, kandi byibazwa ko zikorana n’umutwe wa Jama’a Nusrat ul-Islam wa al-Muslimin, urugaga runini (rw’ingenzi) rw’imitwe yitwaje intwaro yiyitirira Islam ikorera muri Mali. Abasirikare babiri biciwe mu kindi gitero mu kwezi kwa karindwi.

Perezida wa Togo Faure Gnassingbé yasuye ako karere mu gikorwa cyo kongerera umurava abasirikare.

Ariko abahatuye, bahangayitse cyane, bamaze igihe bava mu byaro byabo bakahahunga - ikintu cyanagaragaye mu bindi bice byo muri Sahel byibasiwe n’urugomo rw’intagondwa.

Iyi leta, imaze imyaka ibarirwa muri za mirongo imenyereye kwiharira ubutegetsi, yanagezeho yumva ko bicyenewe gutumira mu biganiro amashyaka atavuga rumwe na yo, ngo baganire kuri gahunda ihuriweho yo ku rwego rw’igihugu yo guhangana n’inkeke y’intagondwa.

Ariko birangira n’ubundi hacyenewe ko igisirikare kigira uruhare rutaziguye.

Kandi aho ni ho drones zikorerwa muri Turukiya ziza muri iyi gahunda, zigaha Togo - cyo kimwe nkuko bimeze kuri Niger - ubushobozi bwayo bwite bwo ku rwego rw’igihugu bwo gukora ubutasi bushingiye mu kirere, mu kugerageza gutahura imitwe y’abarwanyi b’intagondwa no kuba yashobora kubagabaho ibitero.

Ikoreshwa rya drones si iry’ubu (si rishya) muri Sahel. Ubufaransa n’Amerika bifite ibigo bya drones muri Niger, zikora mu gufasha gahunda y’umutekano ya leta ya Niger.

Ku bihugu binini nka Ethiopia - aho ingabo za leta zimaze amezi 21 zirwana n’inyeshyamba zo mu mutwe wa Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) - izi drones zabaye igikoresho cy’ingirakamaro cyo kwagura muri rusange ubushobozi bwa gisirikare.

Ariko hari ibyago, cyo kimwe nkuko bihari ku ndege z’intambara zirimo abapiloye.

Kugeza mu kwezi kwa mbere muri uyu mwaka, abakozi bo mu miryango itanga imfashanyo batangazaga ko drones zari zimaze kwica abaturage b’abasivile barenga 300 mu ntambara yo muri Tigray mu majyaruguru ya Ethiopia.

Kandi n’igisirikare cya Togo cyemeye ko cyishe abasivile barindwi b’urubyiruko mu buryo bwo kwibeshya, nyuma yuko indege - ntibiramenyekana niba yari irimo umupilote cyangwa niba nta mupiloye wari uyirimo - icyetse ko abo bari itsinda ry’intagondwa, ikabagabaho igitero ku itariki ya 9-10 y’ukwezi kwa karindwi.

Ibyago byuko habaho amakosa nk’ayo ahitana ubuzima bw’abantu, biri hejuru cyane mu gihe hari ugushya ubwoba ku gisa nko kwinjirirwa n’intagondwa ziyitirira Islam.

Kuri Togo na Niger, ubufatanye na Turukiya bwo kubona izi drones ni n’ingirakamaro mu rwego rwa politiki.

Bugabanya gushingira ku bufatanye bwa hafi bwo mu rwego rw’umutekano bifitanye n’Ubufaransa, bwahoze bubikoloniza, aho igice kinini cy’abaturage babyo gikomeje kutabona neza ubwo bufatanye bifitanye n’Ubufaransa.

Ku ruhande rwa Turukiya, na yo hari ibiyireshya: "umubano n’ibihugu ushingiye kuri drone" (cyangwa "drone diplomacy") n’ubufatanye mu bya gisirikare, bimaze kuba igikoresho gikomeye muri gahunda y’ububanyi n’amahanga muri Afurika yo mu majyepfo y’ubutayu bwa Sahara, ya Perezida Recep Tayyip Erdogan.

Icyo gikoresho cyuzuzanya n’imbaraga za Turukiya zimaze igihe kirekire, nko kubaka ibibuga by’indege n’ibindi bikorwa-remezo by’ingenzi (bikomeye).

Kandi no mu bakomeye muri politiki no mu bucuruzi muri Turukiya, na ho hari isano hagati yabo.

Baykar, kompanyi ikora drone ya Bayraktar TB2, iyoborwa n’abavandimwe babiri b’abagabo - umuyobozi mukuru wayo Haluk Bayraktar n’umuvandimwe we Selçuk, ukuriye ikoranabuhanga muri iyi kompanyi.

Selçuk ni umugabo wa Sümeyye, umukobwa wa Perezida Erdogan.

Paul Melly ni umushakashatsi w’umugishwanama mu ishami ryiga kuri Afurika mu kigo Chatham House cy’i London.

BBC

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