Ikoranabuhanga

Imbunda zacu ni mudasobwa: Uko Ukraine yambariye gukubita inshuro Uburusiya yifashishije ikoranabuhanga

Porogaramu ya mudasobwa yitwa Delta yakozwe n’abahanga mu ikoranabuhanga bo muri Ukraine yabaye intwaro ikomeye y’ubutasi mu ntambara icyo gihugu cyashojweho n’Uburusiya kuko ifasha gukusanya no gutanga amakuru ku ngendo n’ibico by’umwanzi ubundi ikamutega igico ikamukubita ahababaza cyane vuba na bwangu atazi ikimukubise aho kiva.

Mu nyubakwa y’ibiro biri mu nzu itagira uko isa iherereye mu cyaro cya Zaporizhzhia, abasirikare b’Abanya-Ukraine bahora basa n’aboza banahagura icyo bafata nk’intwaro “ica impaka” bakoresha bihagararaho badatsimburwa ari na ko basubizayo ingabo z’Abarusiya zabagabyeho igitero mu mezi hafi 10 ashize.

Imbere muri iyi nyubakwa, intwaro zirarekura ibishashi biva ku mirasire yo muri ‘screens’ za mudasobwa zisaga 10- zifashishwa nk’uburyo bwo gushaka amakuru ku rugamba rukomeje gukara rugana mu majyepfo. Ukiritse [click] kuri menu, ikarita irerekana utumenyetso twinshi dusa n’ibara rya diyama ya ‘orange’, twerekana aho ingabo z’Ubufaransa ziherereye.

Ni ibimenyetso byerekana aho ibifaru ndetse n’intwaro z’Uburusiya bihishe, n’utundi tuntu duto tw’amakuru nka inite n’abasirikare bazigize n’amakuru aturuka ku mbuga nkoranyambaga.

Ukanze ku yindi ‘menu’ haka utwambi dutukura tuzenguruka agace k’amajyepfo ya Zaporizhzhia, tunagaragaza uko ingabo z’Uburusiya zigana imbere. Iyo ukurura [zoom] aya mafoto, hahita haboneka amafoto y’icyogajuru agaragaza urubuga rw’intambara n’iibiruriho mu buryo bugaragara neza.

Iyi ni Delta, porogaramu [software] ya mudasobwa yakozwe n’abahanga [programmers] b’Abanya-Ukraine ngo bafashe ingabo zabo baziha igisa n’akarusho n’umwitangirizwa mu rugamba rugena uruhande rureba neza ikibuga cy’intambara hanyuma rutegure neza ruzi uko ingabo z’umwanzi zitwara n’aho zigana nuko zimukubite inshuro vuba na bwangu kandi zihamya ahababaza cyane kurushaho.

Mu gihe ibibuga by’imirwano yo mu ntambara ya Ukraine bisa n’ibyo mu ntambara ya mbere y’isi, mu ndake z’ibyondo n’ubutaka buteye ishozi kugendaho, iyi ntambara yabaye nk’ikibuga cy’imyitozo y’imirwanire y’intamabara z’ahazaza, aho amakuru n’uburyo atangwamo byihuse agera ku musirikare bizagira uruhare rufatika mu kugena utsinda cyangwa utsindwa intambara.

Vitalii, inzobere muri mudasobwa mu ishami rya minisiteri y’ingabo rishinzwe ihangadushya n’iterambere ry’ikoranabuhanga ryifashishwa n’ingabo, yavuze ko Ukraine yagize akarusho karemano kuko yagize umuco wa politiki ikorwa n’abato kandi itarangwa n’abakuze bategeka bwidishyi.

Ati “Itandukaniro rikomeye hagati y’ingabo z’Uburusiya n’iza Ukraine ni amahuriro ahuza ingabo.” Nk’izindi ngabo ziba ku kigo cy’ihangadushya, yavuze izina rye rimwe risa, akomeza agira ati “Turatsinda intambara kuko twe Abanya-Ukraine muri kamere yacu tuganira dutegana amatwi nta we ucuze undi ijambo ngo ni uko hari icyo amurusha mu myaka y’ubukure cyangwa ibindi.”

Inyubakwa ikoreramo iki kigo cy’i Zaporizhzhia gikorerwamo na kimwe mu bigo bitandatu bishinzwe kumenya uko ibintu bihagaze umunota ku wundi “situational awareness centres” ingabo za Ukraine zashinze ku birindiro bitandukanye. Icya karindwi kirimo kirashingwa muri Donbas.

I Zaporizhzhia, ubushobozi buhubaka iki kigo bwatanzwe n’umucuruzi uhakorera, kikaba giherereye ku gace ka gatandatu- aho cyagombye kuhavanwa kikongera kikahashyirwa kubera impamvu z’umutekano n’iz’ibikoresho. Biteganijwe noneho ko kizimurirwa ahantu kizahora aho kizashyirwa mu nyubako iri munsi y’ubutaka muri uku kwezi.

Porogaramu ya Delta ikoreshwa n’ikigo mpangadushya, gikorwamo n’abakozi bavanywe mu kigo cy’abakorerabushake bakoresha utudege duto twa ‘drone’ n’abakora porogaramu z’ikoranabuhanga (programmers) kizwi nka Aerorozvidka (ubutasi bwo mu kirere).

Tatiana undi muyobozi kuri iki kigo mpangadushya, yavuze ko kuba gisanzwe ari ikigo cyigenga ariko gifatanye imikoranire na leta na byo byo byatumye kinoza imirimo yacyo kurushaho kugeza ubu.

Ati “Aba ntibari abakozi bakorera mu biro bya minisiteri y’ingabo bambaye amakoti na karavati. Bari abantu bikoreraga bahawe impuruza ngo bakorere igisirikare maze bitaba batarora inyuma. Batangiye gukora Delta bakoresheje imitwe yabo misa n’ibiganza byabo, kuko bari basanganywe uyu muco wo gutabara byihuse aho byakomeye. Uruziga mpangadushya rwo gukora porogaramu nk’iyi ntirutinda. Urayikora, ukayigerageza ubundi ukayitangiza ku mugaragaro.”

Delta yeretswe bwa mbere ibihugu binyamuryango wa OTAN mu mpera z’Ukwakira, nyuma yo guterateranywa n’abahanga (coders) na Aerorozvidka mu 2015 ikaba yari imaze imyaka ine ikoreshwa ari na ko abayikoresha biyongera, mu myaka Aerorozvidka noheho yamizwe n’ikigo mpangadushya.

Inkomoko zayo zitavugwagaho rumwe zaragaragaraga mu gicumbi cya Zaporizhzhia cyari kigizwe n’abiyumva nk’intiti zisoje kaminuza mu ishami rya mudasobwa (computer science) kurusha uko biyumva nka inite ya gisirikare. Umuntu umwe wenyine wari ufite impuzankano y’ingabo yari intasi ya gisirikare uzwi ku kazina gahimbano ka Sergeant Shlomo.

Ku biro mu nzu aho koridoro ngari iherereye hahinduwemo nk’uruganda ruto rwa ‘drone’ aho abenjeniyeri bakoraga amaywa n’ijoro ngo banoze uburyo bwo kurekura igisasu bukoreshwa n’urumuri rwo kuri kajugujugu idatwarwa n’umupilote ahubwo ishobora gukoreshwa na mudasobwa cyangwa smartphone zizwi nka quadcopter.
Ubu buryo bwo kurekura igisasu n’umurizo w’indege uzifasha kugira ubudahugabanywa ‘stability’ ku bisasu bwakorewe kuri za imprimante (printers) z’ikoranabuhanga ry’urwego rwa gatatu (3D). Ibisanduku bikozwe mu tubombe duto ni two dukikije urugi rw’iyi koridoro.

Ku mpera z’iyi koridoro hakoreraga ishami ry’ubutasi bufunguye ‘open source intelligence’ (Osint), aho kimwe cya kabiri cy’abasaga icumi babaga bahugijwe no kuzamuka bamanuka ‘scroll’ ibyatangajwe ‘posts’ z’abinjijwe vuba mu gisirikare cy’Uburusiya, bakabakuramo amakuru yerekeye amatariki n’uduce ubundi bakagaburira Delta ibyo babavanyemo.

Ibifaru by’Abarusiya ubwo byabonwaga na Drones z’abanya Ukraine

Drone ya Ukraine iriho bombe

Uko Drone iba ibona ibifaru by’abarusiya mu ijoro

‘Screen’ imwe yerekanaga abasirikare babiri bava i Dagestan bareba kamera bahagaze muri positeri njyarugamba. Iyi foto n’ubutasi bwayikuyemo amakuru yose yerekeye inite yabo, ubushobozi bwayo mu gihe amabwiriza ya gisirikare haburaga gato ngo atangwe binyuze gusa ku gukirika ku ikarita ya Melitopol, umujyi wafashwe n’Uburusiya uherereye mu bilometero 130 ugana mu majyepfo, ukaba ugenda uba ahantu hashya ku ngabo zirwanira ubu mu majyepfo.

Ikibaho cyera cyo mu biro bya Osint cyerekana ko iri koranabuhanga ryafashe amakuru ko hari ku munsi wa 280 w’intambara, aho imibare igereranije yerekanaga ko Abarusiya bagera ku 88,880 bari bamaze gupfa. “Fuck them up” [baragapfa nabi] ni bwo butumwa bwandikishijwe ikaramu ya ‘marikeri’ iruhande rw’uyu mubare.

Indi mirongo y’amakuru yisuka muri Delta yavaga mu byogajuru by’abafatanyabikorwa bo muri OTAN, akaba umusingi ku ikarita y’ikibuga cy’urugamba, amafoto ya drone, apakirwa kuri mudasobwa umunsi ku munsi, n’amafoto ndetse n’amakuru atangwa n’agatsiko k’abatangamakuru bari inyuma y’imirongo y’Abarusiya, iyoborwa igice kimwe na Shlomo.

Aya makuru yose ashyirwa mu mpapuro ku ikarita y’urugamba ya Delta, ikomeza gukoreshwa kandi ishobora kugerwaho n’abayikoresha bo mu gisirikare binyuze mu batanga amakuru y’ibyogajuru bya Starlink. Kuri ‘screen’, Melitopol iragaragara ifite twa tubara twinshi twa diyama ya oranje n’utwambi dutukura, twerekana ingabo z’Uburusiya zigana imbere.

“Ubu turumva inzira zabo n’uburyo zahindutse,” ni ko Shlomo avuga. “Barakoresha Melitopol nk’ikigo kibikwamo ibikoresho byabo, turagerageza gushaka mu bwonko bwacu ngo twumve intego nyayo yo kuva aho bari bajya ahandi.”

Bashakaga by’umwihariko ubutaka buriho ibifaru n’ibiraro byimukanwa, byerekana ko bagambirira kugaba igitero karahabutaka bakazamura ibendera ryihariye ritukura mu byumba by’uruganiriro bya Delta. Mu minsi ya vuba ishize, ingabo za Ukraine zari zagabye igitero zerekeje intwaro zazo ku birindiro by’ingabo n’ikiraro kiri aho hafi.

Buri munsi, buri situational awareness centre, bya bigo bishinzwe kumenya amakuru y’uko ibintu bihagaze bitanga amakuru y’uko ibintu bimeze n’ibimaze agahe gato bibaye hanyuma hakaba akaganiro gato k’imbonankubone, kaba i saa kumi n’ebyiri z’umugoroba bakaganira ku myanzuro.

Shlomo asobanura ati “Igisirikare gito cy’Abasoviyeti ntigishobora kunesha igisirikare kigari cy’Abasoviyeti. Tugomba gukora impinduka tujya mbere. Tugomba kuba inyaryenge. Inshingano ikomeye y’intambara kuri Ukraine ubu ni uguhindura tukava kuba igisirikare cy’Abasoviyeti tukaba icya OTAN. Ugomba guhindura igisirikare kikaba igitegana amatwi nta gitugu.”

Iyi mpinduka ubwayo yabaye intambara y’ingorabahizi. Igisirikare cya Ukraine cyavuye mu Basoviyeti bakibanjirije, kandi benshi mu bofisiye bacyo bakuze ubu batyajwe n’ubwo bunararibonye. Mu 2020, abajenerali bahagaritse inite ya Aerorozvidka; hanyuma iza kuburwa na minisiteri y’ingabo nk’ikigo mpangadushya amezi make mbere y’uko Uburusiya bugaba igitero kuri Ukraine.

Ibirindiro by’i Donbas ni byo bya nyuma biheruka gushyiraho iyabyo situational awareness centre, kubera mbere na mbere, abasirikare babanje kurwanya iki gitekerezo, ibintu byatumye kigirwaho ingaruka no kubura ugushyira hamwe n’umuriro wa gicuti, nk’uko abayobozi bo mu kigo mpangadushya bavuga.
“Byari akajagari ka rwaserera gusa gusa kiuko ingabo hano zitari zunze ubumwe,” ni ko umwe muri aba bayobozi yavuze.

“Sintekereza ko barahagera ubu,” ni ko Nick Reynolds, umusesenguzi w’intambara zo ku butaka ukorera Royal United Services Institute, ikigo cy’i London abivuga. “Hari ibigo bimwe by’icyitegererezo mu ngabo za Ukraine, gusa si byose. Umuco wa gisirikare ukomora imizi mu Bumwe bw’Abasoviyeti uracyahuha umuyaga muri Ukraine kandi igicucu cyawo umucyo uzacyeyura nturi hafi cyane kurasa.”

Icyakora, Reynolds avuga ko Abanya-Ukraine bageze kure cyane ugereranije n’ingabo z’Uburusiya mu kuba ingabo zishyize hamwe kandi zifashwe ku mugozi w’inyabutatu. Ati “Uruhande rw’Uburusiya ntirwigeze ruhindura imiterere n’imikorere. Bafite urwego runaka rw’ububasha mu ikoranabuhanga, gusa nk’ingabo z’abantu baracyari cyane Abasoviyeti.”

Raporo ya OTAN yasohotse ku itariki ya 30 Ugushyingo ikozwe kuri porogaramu ya Delta ya Ukraine, ikinyamakuru The Guardian dukesha iyi nkuru gifitiye kopi, ivuga ko iyi sofutiweya itari yakamenyerewe n’ingabo za Ukraine, ko bityo itari yagakoreshejwe ku kigero kingana n’ingabo zose bivuga ko amakuru y’ubutasi ava mu bihugu binyamuryango wa OTAN atageraga uko byifuzwa ku basirikare bayoboye abandi hasi ku birindiro byose by’ingabo za Ukraine ziherereye mu duce dutandukanye.

Abarwanyi b’intambara z’amakuru ku bigo mpangadushya bavuga ko bagerageza ubu bagerageza guca umuco uranga ingabo za Ukraine bazishyiramo uwo kuganira bategana amatwi nta muto cyangwa umukuru muri inite za gisirikare biciye mu ikoreshwa rya Delta.

Tatiana ati “Ntidushobora kwandika bundi bushya amahame ndangamuco ayobora igisirikare tunabifatanya no kurwana mu gihe kimwe. Tuzandika aya mahame nyuma yo gutsinda intambara.”

Intambwe ikurikira mu gusakaza Delta, Tatiana avuga ko, kwari ugushyiraho abayobozi bashinzwe, ubutasi buhoraho, ubukorwa kubera igikorwa cya gisirikare cyihutirwa, kumenya ahagabwa igitero n’uburyo bwo kumenya amakuru y’ibanze ku mwanzi mbere yo kumurwanya byiswe mu cyongereza Istar (intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition, and reconnaissance) ku biro no ku nzego za burigade, hanyuma hakaremwa batayo kabuhariwe ya Istar.

Hagati aho ariko, ikigo mpangadushya kirasaba abagiraneza bo mu burengerazuba bagiha intwaro ngo bakore ku buryo habaho porotokole zafasha sisitemu zikozwemo intwaro nshya zajya zihuzwa na Delta bitagoranye.

Shlomo avuga ko guhanahana amakuru yo ku rugamba hagati y’ingabo binyuze muri Delta ryari isiganwa Ukraine yagombaga gutsinda. Ati “Iyi ni inkuru ikomeye turimo kwandika kandi izahindura uburyo n’amayeri yo kurwana intambara. Imbunda zacu ni mudasobwa. Amasasu yacu ni amakuru.”

Iradukunda Fidele Samson

Ahmed tawfek

Glimpse I had had of the Martians emerging from their planet, a kind glimpse I had had of the Martians emerging from the cylinder

TANGA IGITEKEREZO

Ibitekerezo