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Umuti wa Specialite na Generique bivura kimwe ?

Umuti wa Specialite na Generique bivura kimwe ?

Mu miti bakunze kuvuga ngo uyu muti ni “spécialité” ku yindi bati ni “générique”.Ibi bishatse kuvuga iki?Ni irihe tandukaniro?bivura kimwe?.Ibi ni ibibazo byibazwa na benshi, Rwandamagazine.com igiye kubaha ubusobanuro bwimbitse.

Iyo havumbuwe umuti runaka ,uruganda ruzemererwa gutangira gukora no gushyira ku isoko uwo umuti ,ruhabwa igihe cy’imyaka runaka(patent=exclusive right) cyo kuba arirwo rwonyine mu kugurisha uwo muti.Iyo iki gihe kirangiye ,izindi nganda zikora imiti zishobora gusaba guzajya zikora kopi y’uyu muti.Umuti waturutse mu ruganda rwawukoze bwa mbere niwo witwa “spécialité” naho indi miti isa nk’uyu izakorerwa mu zindi nganda izaza yitwa “générique”.

Imiti ikunze kuba iriho amazina arenze rimwe: Iyo umuti usohotse mu ruganda ,uba ufite icyo nakwita izina rusange(generic name ) ndetse n’izina ry’umwihariko kuri urwo ruganda(brand name).Izina rusange(generic name ) rigenwa hakurikijwe ibigize umuti(structure chimique).

Urugero: Flagyl=izina ry’uruganda((brand name) Metronidazole=Izina rusange(generic name) Metronidazole ni umuti wavumbuwe ukaba ukorerwa mu nganda zitandukanye ku isi hose,Flagyl yo ni metronidazole yakozwe n’uruganda rwitwa SANOFI AVENTIS rwo mu bufaransa akaba ari nayo “spécialité” bishatse kuvuga ko izindi nganda zakoze metronidazole zisa na flagyl nyuma yaho “patent” yayo irangiriye.Mu yandi magambo umuti umwe(generic name) ushobora kugira amazina y’uruganda(brand names) menshi bitewe na buri ruganda uko rwashatse gusohora umuti witwa.

- “spécialité” na “générique” bihurira hehe? cg bitandukanira hehe? Buri muti uba ugizwe n’ibice bibiri: 1.Igice kivura=umuti(active ingredient=principe actif) 2.Igice kirimo ibiherekeza cya gice kivura(=Expients):aha twavuga ibituma umuti ubasha gushonga mu buryo bworoshye,ibituma umuti uryohera,ibituma umuti ugira ibara runaka,ibituma umuti ugira ishusho runaka,ibituma umuti udasaza vuba,…

Mu mabwiriza atangwa n’ibigo byita ku buzima(OMS,Medicines and healthcare products regulatory agency,Others expert committees) avuga ko niba uruganda rwiganye umuti runaka(=“générique”) ugomba kuba ufite igice kivura(active ingredient=principe actif) gisa kandi kingana neza n’ibiri mu muti wa “spécialité”.Itandukaniro riboneka kuri cya gice giherekeza umuti(=Expients),aho buri ruganda rukoresha ibirworoheye kubona bitewe naho ruherereye.

Umuti wa “spécialité” na “générique” bivura kimwe?

Kubera ko byose biba bikozwe n’umuti umwe (active ingredient=principe actif) bivura kimwe.Ikiba gitandukanye kuri ino miti usanga ari nk’ibara,ishusho,icyanga,impumuro,…ibi ntacyo bihindura ku kuba ino miti iri buvure indwara imwe. “spécialité” na “générique” ntago bigura kimwe kubera impamvu zikurikira:

- Kugirango umuti uvumburwe bisaba amikoro,ubumenyi,igenzura byose bihambaye,niyo mpamvu uzasanga uruganda rushyize hanze umuti bwa mbere babanza kuruharira gushyira ku isoko uwo muti rwonyine(patent=monopole),ibi bishatse kuvuga ko iyi miti ya “spécialité” uzasanga ituruka mu bihugu byateye imbere nka Amerika n’uburayi noneho iyi miti ikaba ica mu nzira ndende kugirango igere muri Afurika,kimwe mu bituma iyi miti iza ihenze.

- “générique”ni imiti ikorwa iyo cya gihe cyahawe uruganda rwakoze umuti kirangiye( monopole),bishatse kuvuga ko iyi miti iba ihendutse ugereranyije na “spécialité” kubera ko nta bundi bushakashatsi cyangwa irindi genzura ku mikorere y’uyu muti rihambaye ryongera kubaho,umuti uba utuwe uzwi igikorwa ni ukwigana uriho,bishatse kuvuga ko izi nganda uzazisanga hafi na hafi ya buri gihugu kuburyo bidasaba inzira ndende kugirango bigere ku baturage. Ubushakashatsi bwakonzwe bwagaragaje ko igiciro cya “générique” kigabanuka ho 80% ugereranyije nuko “spécialité” igura.

Ku bakunzi ba rwandamagazine.com mujya muri za pharmacies bakababwira ngo “spécialité” ngo “générique”, rimwe na rimwe ntimubashe kumva ibyo aribyo, ubundi mugashidikanya ndetse bikaba byabaviramo gukoresha imiti nabi , twizere ko bitazongera ndetse mugize n’ikindi mwatubaza ,mwatwandikira tukabasubiza.

Ushaka gusobanuza ibijyanye n’imiti cyangwa ikindi kibazo wifuza ko twakubariza muganga, wakohereza ubutumwa bwawe kuri [email protected]

Inkuru yateguwe na phn N.Marcel Baudouin

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