Hanze y’U Rwanda

Icyo abahanga mu bukungu bavuga ku mpamvu zitera ibihugu bimwe gukena ibindi bigakira.Igice cya II

Icyo abahanga mu bukungu bavuga ku mpamvu zitera ibihugu bimwe gukena ibindi bigakira.Igice cya II

Mu nkuru yacu iheruka twavuze ahanini aho izingiro ry’itandukaniro hagati y’ibihugu bikize n’ibikennye riri, tunavuga ndetse ku buryo inzego z’ubuyobozi na politiki bikora mur’ibyo bihugu, dusoza tubonye ko ubukungu na politiki igihugu gifite cyangwa cyahisemo igira uruhare rukomeye kw’iterambere ry’icyo gihugu.

Uyu munsi turagaruka ahanini ku mpamvu abahanga mu by’ubukungu n’imitekerereze batanga basobanura impamvu ibihugu ibi n’ibi bikennye naho ibindi bikaba bikize.

Ese inzitwazo abahanga bamwe bifashisha basobanura impamvu ibihugu bimwe bikennye ibindi bikaba bikize zaba har’ishingiro zifite?

Nk’ibisanzwe tuzakomeza twifashishe igitabo cyitwa WHY NATION FAIL cya DARON ACEMOGLU na JAMES A. ROBINSON cyasohotse tariki 20/03/2012.

Iterambere turimo uyu munsi muri rusange ryatangiye mu gice cya kabiri cy’ikinyejana cya 18, bitangira ahanini ari iterambere ry’inganda binyuze mu gushaka uburyo tekinoloji yashinga imizi mu mikorere y’inganda. Byahereye mu Bwongereza bikomereza mu Burengerazuba bw’Uburayi bishyira na Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika. Ahanini iryo terambere ryakomeje ryerekeza mu bice byari bikoronijwe n’Abongereza birimo Canada, Australia na New Zealand. Mu rutonde rw’ibihugu mirongo 30 bikize akenshi hazamo ibyo bihugu wongeyeho Ubuyapani, Singapore , Koreya y’amajyepfo ndetse n’ ibihugu byo mu gice cy’uburasirazuba bw’Aziya birimo Tayiwani n’Ubushinwa.

Iyo urebye na none ku rutonde rw’ibihugu bikennye kw’isi usanga akenshi ari ibihugu byo munsi y’ubutayu bwa Sahara wongeyeho Afghanistan, Haiti na Nepal. Nubwo bitari muri Afurika ariko bifite byinshi bihuriyeho n’Afurika, tutibagiwe n’ibice by’Aziya biri mu majyepfo ashyira Uburasirazuba.

Iyo witegereje rero ibi bihugu byaba ibyo twavuze n’ibindi tutavuze ahanini ubukungu bwabyo bushingiye kuri peteroli icyo ugenda ubona nuko har’ibyahoze ari ibihugu bikennye nyamara uyu munsi bikaba bikize har’ibindi ubona byagiye bisubira inyuma nyamara byarigeze kuzamuka cyane mw’iterambere.

Ubirebye akabisuzuma neza ashobora kwibwira ko har’impamvu karemano zituma abihugu ibi n’ibi biri mu gice iki n’iki bikira cyangwa bigakena. Abahanga rero mu mibereho y’umuryango muntu ndetse n’abandi batandukanye bagiye batanga impamvu bibwiraga ko zaba arizo nkomoko y’ubukene bwa bimwe mur’ibyo bihugu. Dore imwe mur’izo mpamvu n’icyo twazivugaho:

AHO IBIHUGU BIHEREREYE KU MUBUMBE W’ISI

Iyi niyo mpamvu ya mbere benshi bakunze kwemeranyaho igihe bari kuvuga ku mpamvu zitera ibihugu bimwe kuba bikennye cyangwa bikize.

Mu kinyejana cya 18 umuhanga muri Politiki akaba n’umunyabitekerezo w’Umufaransa witwa Montesquieu yibajije ku kuntu har’ibice bimwe by’isi byiganjemo ubukire ibindi bikaba byiganjemo ubukene maze atangira kwibaza impamvu yabyo. Nyuma yo kubitekerezaho niho yahereye avuga ko abantu bo mu bice bishyuha bikikije koma y’isi (tropical climate) abenshi ngo ni abanebwe ndetse ntibakunda gushakashaka; ibyo bikaba aribyo bituma badakora cyane, ntibagire udushya bahanga bikabaviramo gukena. Montesquieu kandi yavuze ko abantu bo mur’ibyo bice by’isi bishyuha ahanini bayoborwa n’abanyagitugu ndetse asoza avuga ko iki gice cy’isi ahanini uretse no kurangwa n’ubukene ahubwo kirangwa na politiki itari nziza mu bihugu biri muri ibyo bice. Nyamara ibi byo kwemeza ko ibihugu bishyuha bikena byavugurujwe cyane n’iterambere rya Singapore, Malysia na Botswana.

Ntibyagarukiye aho ariko!! Har’undi muhanga muby’ubukungu witwa Jeffrey Sachs wabivuzeho, we ariko ntiyibanda ahanini ku ngaruka z’ako kanya z’ibihe (climate), ahubwo we yavuze ibindi bintu bibiri aribyo indwara z’ibyorezo zihaboneka cyane cyane malariya, ko zifite ingaruka nyinshi kandi mbi ku buzima bw’abahatuye no ku musaruro batanga. Ikindi yavuzeho nk’impamvu ikomeye ni imiterere y’ubutaka bwo mur’iki gice gishyuha cy’isi ko ari ubutaka butera. Muri make yagaragaje ko igice cy’isi cyirangwa ahanini n’ubuhehere (temperate) gifite byinshi kirusha ibice bishyuha by’isi kandi byafatwa nk’umusemburo w’ubukungu.

Nyamara nubwo bimeze bityo ubusumbane mu by’ubukungu hano ku isi ntabwo ishingiro ryabwo rishingiye ku bihe (climate), indwara se cyangwa indi mpamvu yose ishingiye ku merekezo aya n’aya ibihugu bigiye biherereyemo.

Niba amerekezo y’aho igihugu kiri atariyo mpamvu y’itandukaniro mu bukungu y’igice cy’amajyaruguru cya Nogales n’igice cya Nogales y’amajyepfo kuko igitandukanyije ibyo bice bibiri si ibishingiye ku bihe (climate), si yewe no ku cyerekezo biherereyemo cyangwa indwara ahubwo ni urukuta rw’umupaka utandukanya Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika na Mexico. Ndetse kandi niba iyi mpamvu ishingiye ku cyerekezo cy’aho igihugu kiri idasobanura Itandukaniro hagati ya Koreya ya Ruguru n’iye Epfo ndetse no hagati y’Ubudage bw’iburasirazuba n’ubw’iburengerazuba mbere y’ihirikwa ry’urukuta rwa Berlin. Ese aho twayishingiraho tugaragaza itandukaniro hagati y’America ya ruguru n’iy’epfo, twayishingiraho se tugaragaza itandukaniro hagati y’Afurika n’Uburayi? Oya rwose ntibikwiye!! Kuko har’ibice byinshi byagiye bitera imbere kandi biri mu gice cy’isi gishyuha cyane ndetse ibyo bice biri ku migabane yose y’isi. Amateka atwereka rwose neza ko kuba igihugu giherereye mu gice gishyuha bitavuze ko kigomba gukena.

Nibyo rwose indwara n’ibyorezo bigira ingaruka nyinshi cyane ku batuye Afurika bigatuma tugira n’umubare munini w’abana bapfa bakiri bato; ariko ibyo siyo mpamvu Afurika ikennye. Indwara z’ibyorezo ahanini ni ingaruka z’ ubukene na za guverinoma zitabasha cyangwa se zidafite ubushake bwo gufata ingamba zo kurwanya ibyo byorezo ngo bicike. Kuko hari ibice by’isi uyu munsi nabyo byahoze ari ibice birangwa n’indwara ndetse n’ibyorezo byinshi nyamara uyu munsi bikaba biri mu bihugu bizira ibyorezo urugero twatanga ni nk’Ubwongereza. Icyatumye ibyo bihugu bigira abaturage bazira ibyorezo n’indwara nta kindi uretse kuba Guverinoma zifata ingamba zo guhashya ibyo byorezo. Ubuzima bwiza rero muri ibyo bihugu no kugira icyizere cyo kuramba kirekire ntibituruka ku bukire bw’ibyo bihugu ahubwo ni umusaruro w’impinduka muri politiki y’ubuzima n’imibereho y’abantu guverinoma ziba zarakoze tudasize n’impindukamu muri politiki y’ubukungu.

Iyindi ngingo benshi bitwaza ni ivuga ko ubutaka bwo mu bice bishyuha (tropical climate) buba ari ubutaka butera ndetse n’isuri ikomeye ihaba, bituma umusaruro wabyo kuri metero kare uba muke. Nyamara ubushakashatsi bwo bwerekana ko umusaruro muke ntaho uhurira n’imiterere y’ubutaka (soil quality) ahubwo ufite aho uhurira cyane nuko uburenganzira bw’umuturage bungana ku butaka bwe ndetse n’urwego rw’ ibyuyumvo by’uko ibintu ari ibyawe bwite rungana kandi urwo rwego rugenwa n’ubuyobozi. Ikindi kandi itandukaniro mu bukungu ryigaragaza cyane mu kinyejana cya 19 ntiryashingiye ku musaruro mu buhinzi ahubwo ryashingiye kw’iterambere rya tekinoloji mu by’inganda.

Diamond Jarred umuhanga mu bumenyamuntu n’imibereho ya muntu n’ibimukikije uvuga ko itandukaniro mu iterambere mu gihe cy’imyaka 500 ishize ryashingiye ku kuba har’ibice by’isi usanga birusha ibindi amako menshi y’ibihingwa n’amatungo ahandi ugasanga bitahaboneka kandi ibyo bigira ingaruka ku musaruro mu buhinzi. Nyamara nubwo ubuhinzi ari ingenzi ariko nk’uko twabibonye ubusumbane mu bukungu ntibushingiye ku buhinzi n’umusaruro uvamo ahubwo bushingiye ku buryo tekinoloji yimitswe mu nganda kandi ibyo ni hake bihurira n’amoko y’amatungo n’ibimera.

Ikibigaragaza aha rero ni uko ibihugu byakize ntabwo ari uko biherereye mu gace runaka ku isi kaba agashyuha cyangwa agakonja, ahubwo ibihugu byakize nuko byimitse tekinoloji mu mikorere yabyo cyane cyane mu nganda ikaba ubukombe maze bigatuma abaturage bihatira kwiga cyane no kuvumbura izindi tekinoloji zabafasha gukora imirimo yabo vuba kandi neza.

Ubutaha tuzabagezaho izindi ngingo zisigaye ntimuzacikwe maze turusheho guhugurana mu bukungu maze bidutere kugumya gukaza umurego mu kubaka ubukungu bw’igihugu cyacu n’abagituye mu buryo burambye.

Rugaba

Icyo abahanga mu bukungu bavuga ku mpamvu zitera ibihugu bimwe gukena ibindi bigakira. Igice I

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