Hanze y’U Rwanda

’Dark Net’,uruhande ruhishe rwa internet rukorerwaho ibyaha bihambaye ariko ntibivumburwe

’Dark Net’,uruhande ruhishe rwa internet rukorerwaho ibyaha bihambaye ariko ntibivumburwe

Dark net ni ubwoko bwa internet ikoreshwa n’umubare utari munini ,kuko izwi na mbarwa. Niyo icururizwaho ibitemewe n’amategeko aho biva bikagera kugeza ku icuruzwa ry’abana b’abakobwa bakiri bato ariko abakora ubu bucuruzi ntawe ufite ubushobozi bwo kubavumbura.

Muri 2013 internet yakoreshwaga na 2/3 by’abaturage bo mu bihugu byateye imbere, naho 40% nibo bayikoreshaga ku isi hose. Ubu aho iyi si igeze, iyi mibare yarazamutse cyane. Muri iyi nkuru ntituri bugaruke kuri internet n’inkomoko yayo ahubwo turagaruka ku ruhande rwayo ruhishwe rutazwi na bose.

Internet turayikunda kandi ni nziza kuko idufasha mu gutumatumanaho n’inshuti, guhaha, gukora akazi ka buri munsi, …ariko nubwo tuyikoresha byinshi byiza, hari ikindi gice cya internet gihishe gikorerwaho ibintu byose binyuranyije n’amategeko nko kugurishirizwaho amafaranga y’amakorano, ibiyobyabwenge, intwaro, gucururizaho abana ndetse no kunyuzwaho filime z’urukozasoni zakinishijwemo abana bakiri bato (pédopornographie),…kandi ntihagire ubasha kuvumbura ababikora.

Kuri Dark Net byose biragurwa. Ibiyobyabwenge, intwaro n’ibindi bitemewe n’amategeko birahagurishirizwa, amagambo yose aremewe kuyahavugira , itegeko rimwe gusa rihaba ni ukutavuga umwirondoro wawe wa nyawo. Dark Net bisobanuye igice cy’umwijima cya internet ikorerwaho aya mabi yose yashinzwe nande? Ikoreshwa ite? Ni iki gituma abayikoresha batajya bavumburwa?

Ninde washinze Tor ifatwa nk’umuryango winjira muri Dark net ?

Dark net ikoreshwa n’abantu bafite ibyo bahuriyeho kandi by’amabanga. Imbuga zayo ni ibanga , nta bahanga cyangwa ubutegetsi bashobora kubigenzura. Igisirikare cya Amerika nicyo cyashinze Dark Net mu myaka 13 ishize, kugirango barinde amakuru y’ibanga bahanahana hagati yabo.

Mu nyandiko ikinyamakuru Slate cyahaye umutwe ugira uti ‘Qui a peur du grand méchant «darknet»?’ yo ku wa 27 Ugushyingo 2011, cyatangaje ko gahunda ya Tor ifatwa nk’umuryango winjira muri Dark net, yashinzwe n’igisirikare cya Amerika cyo mu mazi, US.Navy. Nubwo Tor yashinzwe n’igisikare cya Amerika ariko nyuma yaje kuba umushinga wigenga’ Tor Project’ ariko ikomeza gufashwa na Leta ya Amerika.

Imibare yo muri 2011 igaragaza ko 60% by’amafaranga yateraga inkunga uyu mushinga yavaga muri guverinoma ya Amerika. Nkuko iki kinyamakuru gikomeza kibivuga, igisirikare cya Amerika gikoresha Tor mu guhanahana amakuru y’ibanga, ndetse igakoreshwa n’ibigo by’ubutasi NSA na CGHQ twagarutseho mu nkuru zahise.

Guverinoma ya Amerika kandi yashinze Dark Net ngo kuko yabonaga ko cyaba igikoresho cy’ubwisanzure bw’abatavuga rumwe na Leta z’ibihugu byabo ndetse bakaba bakwigana uburyo bwa Demukarasi Amerika ikoresha ari nayo mpamvu itera inkunga umushinga wa Tor. Impinduramatwara zabaye mu bihugu by’Abarabu mu majyaruguru ya Afrika muri 2011, dark net yazigizemo uruhare runini ndetse kugeza nubu muri Syria, abarwanya ubutegetsi bwa Bashal Al Assad barayifashisha mu guhanahana amakuru.

Mu gutegura iyi nkuru , twifashishije na filime mbarankuru(Documentaire) yitwa ‘Le cote obscur du net, dark net(igice gihishe cya internet) yacishijwe kuri sheni ya Televiziyo France 2 mu kiganiro cyayo’Envoyé special’ ku itariki 14 Ugushyingo 2013.

Kugira ngo umunyamakuru wakurikiranaga uburyo iyi internet ikoreshwa abashe kubona ko ibitemewe n’amategeko bihakorerwa, yaguze imbunda kandi umugeraho nta nkomyi. Imbunda yo mu bwoko bwa Revolver yayiguze amadorali 1000 kuri rumwe mu mbuga zikoresha Dark net ariko iza ipfunyitse mu gikarito kirimo radiyo, ndetse handitseho ko yayiguze amadorali 70, nyamara imbere mu byuma bikoze iyo radiyo niho imbunda yari ihishe. Uru ni urugero rw’uburyo abacuruza ibitemewe n’amategeko bageza ku baguzi babo ibicuruzwa mu ibanga.

Ninde ubasha gukoresha Dark Net ?

Cyril ni umwe mu bahanga ba mudasobwa mu Bufaransa. Niwe abanyamakuru ba Envoye Special bifashishije mu gusobanukirwa ibigendanye na Dark Net. Cyril avuga ko byoroshye cyane kugira ngo umuntu uwo ari we wese atangire gukoresha Dark Net. Ngo ko ikiba gikenewe ni ugukora download/Telechargement ya porogaramu bita TOR(The onion router) . Tor ikora akazi gasanzwe gakorwa n’izindi internet browser tumenyereye nka Safari, Mozilla Firefox, Google chrome, ... Nubwo programu ya Tor ariyo ikunda kuvugwa mu ikoreshwa rya dark net hari izindi nka FreeNet, I2P nazo zikoreshwa mu gukoresha internet ihishe.

Tor ikora ite? Ni gute abakoresha Dark net batajya bamenyekana ?

Mu bisanzwe buri mudasobwa yose iri gukoresha umurongo wa internet imenyekana hifashishijwe imibare 10 bita IP Adress. Mudasobwa yawe iyo iri gukoresha internet iba ikoresha Seriveri 1(connecte a un serveur unique)izwi kandi icungwa n’uwatanze connexion ukoresha. Ibikorwa byose ukoreraho bibasha kugenzurwa(activites tracables). Kuri Dark Net, Tor igenda ihuza mudasobwa yawe na seriveri nyinshi ku isi hose, kuburyo buhindagurika cyane, ibintu bigoye kuba hamenyekana aho uherereye mubyukuri. Urugero wifashishije Dark Net ushobora kohereza ubutumwa, uwo ubwoherereje akabona ko buturutse mu Bwongereza nyamara utigeze urenga imbibi z’u Rwanda.

Avuga kuri ibi ,Cylir yagize ati " Iyi mvange yo kuba mudasobwa itabasha kugaragara kuri seriveri 1, biba bigoye ko n’abantu bagenzura interineti bafite ubushobozi buhambaye biborohera kubasha kumenya aho iherereye. "

Tor ifata umwirondoro w’imashini (IP Adress) ikagenda iwimurira mu bice byo ku isi hose

Niho abacuruza ibiyobyabwenge bungukira atagira ingano

Joe (izina yahimbwe), umwe mu bacuruza ibiyobyabwenge mu bihugu birenga 15 akoresheje Dark Net yatangarije abanyamakuru ba envoyé special ko ubu buryo aribwo bumworohera gukora ibikorwa bye mu mutekano aho gukoresha imbuga zizwi nka google kuko ho byoroshye kuba yahita amenyekana. “Twafunguye amasoko ku isi hose, abaguzi ni benshi. Kuri Dark Net ushobora gucuruza ibyo ushaka. Mu mezi 4 ashize maze kunguka 15.000 by’ama Euro. »

Yongeyeho ati « Ntabwo nacuruza nkoresheje internet isanzwe aho njya kunyura kuri google, kuko ho ntibatinda kugufata. Kuri TOR ubutumwa bwose buba bwanditse mu bwiru. Mba mfite umutekano wo gukorera ibi byose iwanjye nkagurisha byohereje ku iposita aho kugira ngo njye kubigurisha mu muhanda no gutuma ababigura bahora iwanjye .Ndabizi ko nshobora gufungwa imyaka 10 ndetse n’amande menshi ariko ntibinteye ubwoba.” Ibobyabwenge bye , Joe abipfunyika mu ibahasha itabonerana ubundi akayicisha ku iposita. Ikigero gito cyane cya 2% by’ibicuruzwa bitemewe n’amategeko ngo nibyo bifatirwa ahanini kuri Douane.

Nyuma y’imyaka 2 rukora iperereza , mu kwezi k’ukwakira 2014 , urwego rw’ubutasi rwa Amerika ,FBI yabashije gufunga urubuga rwa Silk Road rwifashishwaga n’abacuruzi b’ibiyobyabwenge n’intwaro bakomeye ku isi aho wabiguraga, bakabikuzanira iwawe ntamuntu uguketse. Silk Road bimwe mu binyamakuru bigeranya na E-bay icururizwaho ibiyobyabwenge, rwanyuragaho miliyoni irenga y’amadorali buri kwezi. Hagati ya Gashyantare 2011 na Nyakanga 2013, Silk Road yabarirwaga ko yanyujijweho miliyari 1,2 z’amadorali y’Amerika, yabarizwagaho nibura abacuruzi 3.800 ndetse n’abaguzi 147.000 .

Kuri Dark Net , ibyaha byose bikomeye birahakorerwa

Rwafunzwe bitewe n’ikosa ryakozwe na Ross Ulbricht wari wararushinze ariko bukeye bwaho nibwo abagurisha ibiyobyabenge ndetse n’ababigura batangiye kwifashisha izindi mbuga zikorera kuri dark net. Mu kwezi kumwe ifunzwe, Silk Road yongeye gufungurwa.

Na passeport z’ibihugu bikomeye zirahagurishirizwa

Uretse ibiyobyabwenge, intwaro n’ibindi, kuri dark net hagurishirizwa n’impapuro z’inzira (Passeport) za bimwe mu bihugu bikomeye. Mu nkuru yacyo yo ku wa 10 Ukwakira 2015, ikinyamakuru Slate cyatangaje ko Passeport y’igihugu cy’Ubufaransa yibwe cyangwa y’impimbano , kuri dark net igurishwa hagati y’ama Euro 1500 na 3000.(Ni ukuvuga hagati ya 1.509.982 na 3.019.965 FRW). Impamvu ngo iyi passeport ihenda ni uko uyiguze abasha gutembera mu bihugu 145 nta visa basabwe cyangwa bakaba bagura visa ako kanya. Nubwo Passeport ya Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika iri muzikomeye kubonwa , kuri Dark net ho siko bimeze kuko igurishwa hagati y’ama Euro 826 na 1.811 (831.497 na 1.823.052 FRW).

Kuri uru rutonde rwakozwe na Vocativ, Passeport ihenze cyane ni iy’igihugu cya Danemark ,igakurikirwa n’iy’igihugu cy’Ububiligi.

Kuri dark Net hakoreshwa ifaranga ryavutse muri 2009

Mu rwego ro kwirinda kurushaho, abakorera ibi bikorwa bitemewe kuri Dark net bagura ndetse bakangurisha bifashishije ifaranga ry’ibanga bita Bit coin ariko ryemewe n’amategeko. Aya mafaranga yashinzwe muri 2009 n’umuntu utazwi gusa bivugwa ko yitwa Satoshi Nakamoto ariko ntihazwi umwirondoro we. Kugeza ubu rimaze kumenyekana cyane, ariko ahanini rikoreshwa mu igura n’igurisha kuri dark net. Gusa wifashishije Bit coin ushobora no guhaha mu buryo bwemewe ku mbuga zizwi. Kugira ngo wumve agaciro k’iri faranga bya Bit Coins, mu nkuru ya Arte TV ‘Darknet, le web à l’état brut’ yo muri Kanama 2015, yatangaje ko ku itariki 01 Ukuboza 2014, 1 Bit coin ryavunjwaga ama Euro 400.

Mu ntangiriro z’uyu mwaka wa 2018, bitcoin 1 iri kuvunjwa asaga miliyoni 14 z’amafaranga y’u Rwanda ( 14.124.494 FRW).

Kugira ngo habeho ubwirinzi n’ubujura ndetse no kugira ngo abakoresha Dark Net bizere neza ko ibyo baguze bizabageraho, hari ababa baraguriye umucuruzi runaka kuri Dark net bashyiraho ubutumwa buvuga uko yitwara mu bucuruzi, igihe bimutwara ngo akugezeho igicuruzwa,…bityo bigafasha ugura guhitamo umucuruzi nyawe aguriraho icyo akeneye, Iyo ari igicuruzwa nk’ibiyobyabwenge,ugiye kugura ngo abanza kugezwaho umusogongero.

Filime z’urukozasoni zikinishwa abana nizo zisurwa cyane

Ubushakashatsi bwiswe’Hidden services’ bwakorewe muri Kaminuza ya Portsmouth yo mu Bwongereza bukorewe kuri Porogaramu ya Tor, bwagaragaje ko 80% by’abakoresha Dark Net ari abasura imbuga zayo zibaho ibikorwa byo gushora abana bakiri bato cyane mu busambanyi. Ibyerekeye ubu bushakashatsi ikinyamakuru The Guardian cyabyanditse mu yandiko cyahaye umutwe ugira uti”Study claims more than 80% of ’dark net’ traffic is to child abuse sites”yo ku wa 31 Ukuboza 2014.

N’abanyamakuru barayikoresha

Abigaragambya nabo badashaka kumenyekana cyangwa abaturage bo mu bihugu bikunda gukumira ikoreshwa rya internet bakoresha ubu bwoko bwa internet. Imibare yatanzwe n’ikinyamakuru Slate yo muri Kanama 2013 yagaragazaga ko mu bantu bo ku isi yose bakoreshaga dark net, 2.000 bakomokaga muri Bahreïn, hagati ya 15.000 na 20.000 bakomokaga muri Iran, naho 6.000 ari abo muri Syrie. Mwene ibi bihugu, umuryango Reporters sans frontiers wabyise abanzi ba internet. Mu Burusiya ho abagera kuri 120.000 nibo bakoreshaga dark net muri 2013. Imibare icyo gihe yagaragazaga ko nibura abantu miliyoni aribo bakoresha Tor buri munsi.

Uduce turimo intambara ikaze, buri kintu cyose kinyura kuri internet kigenzurwa, cyangwa bahigwa bukware, abanyamakuru nabo bifashisha Dark net mu gukora akazi kabo no kohereza amakuru . Dark Net kandi ikoreshwa n’itangazamakuru rimena amabanga ya za Leta kuko ho ntawe uba yamenya umwirondoro wabo. Bwa mbere flash disk ziriho porogaramu ya TOR zahawe abanyamakuru b’i Kabul muri Afghanistan binyuze mu muryango wa Reporters sans frontiers/Reporters without border . Dark Net kandi yifashishwa mu gusoma imbuga za internet zafunzwe n’ubutegetsi runaka hagamijwe ko abaturage basoma amakuru ariho. Kugeza ubu ikigo cy’ubutasi bya Amerika cya NSA cyananiwe kubasha kugenzura dark net.

Ibi ni bimwe wamenya kuri internet ihishwe yiswe Dark net. Iyi nkuru twayanditse dusubiza bamwe mu bakunzi bacu bakunze kuyidusaba. Na we niba hari ingingo wumva ufiteho amatsiko twazagarukaho mu nkuru zacu zitaha, watwoherereza ubutumwa kuri email [email protected]

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